A Thousand Splendid Suns


A Lively Canon of Classroom Strategies

by Donna Sears and Linda Stewart







  Students Start Your Engines

Just as Harry Wong says what happens on the first days of school will be an accurate indicator of your success for the rest of the year, what happens in the first minutes of your class will indicate your success for the rest of the class period. To be effective, you must be at your door to greet students, as well as have a planned strategy for providing activities that will immediately engage students as they walk in the door. Activities used to start class (which are meaningful to students) provide an “emotional hook,” that in turn fosters attention and learning. This “daily activity” and routine (bellringer, etc.) must be explained and practiced from the first time you meet with your students, so it becomes part of the “procedure” for entering your classroom. Below you will find 65 different ways to begin your class. Plan well and adapt your content for success. Vary your beginning strategies for motivation.

Beginning Your Class

1)       Admit Slips                  Students write the answer to a question given by the teacher the previous day and turn it in as they enter class the next day.
2)       Agree/Disagree             A formal approach to discussing and researching issues. As students enter the classroom, they are polled for agreement or disagreement with a statement/s and their responses are recorded in a matrix. As class progresses, students research the topic,  and again their responses are recorded. Finally, small groups meet to discuss the results and changes.
3)       Agree/Disagree Teacher makes or posts a statement about a controversial issue. The students then line up in proportion to their agreement or disagreement with the issue. Can use 5 for strongly agree, 4 for agree, 3 for not sure, 2 for disagree, 1 for strongly disagree. Tell  students to be prepared to defend their choice.
4)       Alphabet Summary      Each student is assigned a different letter of the alphabet upon entering the classroom and asked to generate a word starting with  that letter that is  related to the topic to be discussed. Students share their terms with the class, partner or write it on paper.
5)       Analogies                     Post one or more unfinished analogy for students to complete as they get seated. An analogy is a thinking skill demonstrated by a  student when he or she can give examples similar to, but not identical to a thought.                                                                             Example:    Maze : confusing as enigma : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _,
“I have a Dream” was to the Civil Rights Movement as __________________ was to _________________.
6)       Anticipation Guide       Checklist written by teacher to activate existing knowledge. At the beginning of a lesson or unit of study, write 3-5 questions or                                            make 3-5 statements about the topic.  Students respond with agree or disagree.  After the lesson or unit of study is complete,                                         go back to the statements and see if any students would change their response.
7)       Biopoems                    Poems written by students about any specific person or object (character in book, living or inanimate objects). Its purpose is to                                           summarize student knowledge of topic.
8)       Brain Teaser                 An activity to stimulate thinking through multiple intelligences. Can be a rhebus, lateral thinking puzzle, 5 minute mystery, etc.
9)       Cartoons                      Introduce a thought, concept, skill etc. by posting, reading or creating cartoons. Cartoons can also be cut up and used as a                                               sequencing activity.   
10)   Classification               Create packets or envelops with cut a part objects or concepts with instructions for students to pick up and complete as they enter                                        the classroom. (When objects or concepts are classified, they are grouped with other, similar things, and the group is given a                                        label. As a thinking skill, classification requires the application of knowledge. When students invent their own classifications, they                                                practice            discovery and invention along with being able to apply prior knowledge about the objects or concepts being classified.)
11)   Color-by-Number          It’s not exactly color-by-number.  Have a page full of words on a topic, and at the bottom, have written instructions to color or circle                                               with particular color. (color or circle all the verbs red, nouns-blue, etc. or for Social Studies, color or outline European countries in                                       yellow, North America in green, etc. It works well to have a box with bundles of colored pencils or crayons) Using Tables in                                     Microsoft word is a good way to make worksheet.
12)   Comparing                   Post or display objects or concepts, so students can observe or consider the characteristics of two or more, looking for both                                                similarities and differences. Can use graphic organizers such as comparison matrix or Venn diagram or foldables.     
13)   Comparison Matrix       A graphic organizer handed to them as they enter the classroom or placed where they can pick it up, that can assist students in                                          gathering information and comparing objects or concepts.     

14)   Continuum                   Upon entering the classroom students take keywords (can be placed in envelopes or baggies) and arrange them to form a                                                      continuum based on a variety of criteria. For example, "beaver, rattlesnake, deer, plankton" would be arranged as "rattlesnake,                                                deer, beaver, plankton" if asked to arrange according to their preference for water, and "plankton, rattlesnake, beaver, deer" if                                     asked to arrange according to size.
15)   Contrasting                  Have display or words posted, etc. as students enter so they can begin class by exploring or describing differences between                                      objects or concepts. 

16)  Copying                       Have diagrams, drawings, text, motions, graphs, etc. posted and students are responsible for reproducing as they enter the                                                classroom. Used to encourage students to look more carefully at something.     

17)   Current Events             As students enter have them respond to posted events in recent news in various ways—listing three ways it could affect them,                                        drawing a cartoon, etc.  Use responses for student discussion or student work centers.
18)   Daily                            An opener activity in which teachers post statements or any number of daily questions, problems, etc. for students to correct,                                       finish, explain, etc.
19)   Driting                          As students enter, have a word or concept for explanation by drawing and writing. Often used in foreign language classes.
20)  Estimating                   Post questions or problems or put cut up problems in envelopes for approximate answers as an estimation review or introduction                                            to an estimation lesson.
21)   Find the Rule               Students are given sets of examples that demonstrate a single rule (like "i before e except after c.") and are asked to find and                                            state the rule. You can use examples of a law or theory in math or science.
22)   Fishbowl                      Cut up questions and put in a fishbowl. Have students draw out one question from a past lesson and be prepared to answer on     .                       your signal after roll call. You can also use questions for reading and finding the answer in an assigned paragraph.
23)   Flashbacks                   Design and post one or more questions made from your subject’s spi’s or skills and use as a daily or bellringer to start your class.
24)   Flow Charts                  Have students pick up, or hand to them as they enter, a partially complete flow chart to finish. Flow charts are graphical depictions                                           of processes or relationships. Typically flow charts include icons showing particular processes or steps, and arrows                                                 indicating paths.
25)   Foldables                     Collection points or visual paper activities that help students organize key concepts and information. Students fold pieces of paper                                             in various ways to hold their written notes and other information. Great study tool with multiple uses in all content areas. A                                                  Glencoe resource. (Call Linda Stewart for examples and more information)                     
26)   Forced Analogy            Have students make analogies by comparing problem term to a randomly selected term (for example, compare algebra to a                                      cracker). Then use the new combinations to solve a problem or create something.
27)   Frayer Model                As students enter, give them word choices for using this vocabulary development tool. Students use a graphic organizer to                                           categorize their knowledge about a word. Squares with 4 to 6 blocked spaces work well.
28)   Gaps                            Post sentences or sequences with gaps (missing words, numbers, or symbols) and students are asked to fill in the gaps.
29)   Graphic Organizers      Hand out to students as they enter, or have placed to pick up, a partially complete graphic organizer. Graphic organizers are                                               visual frameworks to help the learner make connections between concepts.
30)   Hidden Word Game      Have students find a word important to the lesson by posting or passing out sentences in which a word is hidden. For example:                                         The school mouse ate acherry for her morning snack. In this sentence is the hidden word TEACHER                                                                              (The school mouse aTE A CHERry for her morning snack.)                           
31)  Hypotheses                  Have a display, post a problem, or loop a demo through LCD display so students can give a tentative explanation for patterns or                                           observations.   
32)  Information Transfer    This activity needs to be modeled ahead of time or show an exemplar so students know how to perform. This activity involves the                                          changing of information either from a diagram to words or vice-versa. The interpretation of text, diagram or tables is an important                                      skill. Ex. Give students text and have them transfer the information to an organizer made by the teacher or an outline and have                                                them write a paragraph or vice versa.
33)  Journal Writing            Typically done for a few minutes each day. The writing is done in a notebook and is often used for exploration of ideas of interest                                     to the students or to encourage reflection. Journal writing is typically not graded, and in some instances, is not read by anyone but                                     the student. In other instances, the journal can be used to establish an ongoing written dialog between the student and the                                                      teacher.           
34)  Jumbled Summary       Teacher posts or cuts up and places in an envelope randomly ordered key words and phrases from a lesson. Students put the                                                terms and phrases in a logical order to show understanding.
35)  Knowledge Rating        A prereading strategy designed to evaluate students’ prior knowledge of a topic by having them rate how well they know the                                                content vocabulary words. The vocabulary words are presented and students rate each word with a number—1 know it well                                          enough to define it, 2 think I know it, 3 have heard it or have seen it, and 4 no clue. Teacher can then identify how much                                                          prereading instruction will be necessary for critical reading as well as identifying words for explicit vocabulary instruction. It also                                         allows the teacher to differentiate instruction based on a student’s need.
36)   KWL                             "Know, Want to know, Learn" Students identify what they know about a topic, what they want to know, and after reading or                                         instruction, identify what they learned or would still like to learn.

37)  Letter Writing               Upon entering the classroom students are asked to write a letter to a specific person or place for specific reasons relating to

prior                                           lessons. It encourages students to think about a specific audience and practice skills.
38)   Listing                                     As students enter, ask them to make lists of words, objects or ideas. Can be used to organize thoughts before a writing activity or                                          as an assessment to demonstrate the ability to recall.
39)   Matching                      Post on board or individual slips of paper words, phrases, concepts, skills, etc. Making matches can be done in many contexts.                                     Students can match words with their definitions or mathematical expressions with their solutions, etc.
40)   Metaphors                    Give out paragraphs, assigns pages, etc. for students to find metaphors or create metaphors. Metaphors can be used as                                                   examples by teachers, or students can form metaphors.
41)  Mnemonics                  Post a list of information to memorize and give a mnemonic phrase for students to use to remember info (sentence with words                                           using the first letter of the key word for memory. Ex. Kangaroos Hop Down Mountains Drinking Chocolate Milk. The first letters                                               represent K-kilometer, h-hectometer, D-decameter, M-meter, D-decimeter, C-centimeter, M-millimeter. Ask for learned info after                                                roll call or group practice. Mnemonics is any of several techniques or devices used to help remember or memorize names or                                                concepts.
42)   Modifying                     Provide students as they enter the classroom with models or information that are            nearly correct or complete and allow students to                                     modify the model or information to make it more complete. Useful in the classroom as a scaffolding tool.
43)   Pop Quiz                      Give out pop quiz, an assessment given without notice (graded or non-graded), as they enter the classroom or display on board. It                             is sometimes used as a review (non-graded), and is definitely used to motivate students to study each day.
44)  Predictions                  Display situations or problems so students can make predictions to indicate extended understanding of concepts from previous                                              day or prior lesson.
45)  Questionnaires             Post or hand out questionnaire as they enter classroom. A list of questions concerning a specific topic in order to gather info                                           to use in helping you plan lessons according to student level and interest.
46)  Scanning                     Assign to each student upon entering class a section, paragraph, page etc. for reading or looking at material quickly to gain an                                          overview of the content. Can note, share with a partner, or discuss with class.
47)  Similarities & Differences Either in graphic or symbolic form, representing similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to                                                use knowledge. Four forms to use are Comparing, Classifying, Creating metaphors, and Creating analogies.
48)  Skimming                    Use same as scanning.  Reading or looking at material quickly to gain an overview of the content.
49)   Slip Writing                  Post topic so students entering can individually brainstorm on paper to be followed by sharing of the written ideas in small                                                        groups.
50)  Spelling Pictures         Students copy their spelling words by writing them in a pattern that "traces" a picture, or purchase a professionally done                                                             Vocabulary Cartoons appropriate age level package for classroom use.   www.vocabularycartoons.com
51)  Story Impressions        The teacher posts ten to fifteen terms to students prior to reading. These terms appear in the same order that they appear                                          in the reading. Students write a passage using the terms that they think predicts what will happen in the reading. Students                                            share their predictions with others. Finally, students read, comparing their predictions (story impressions) with the reading.
52)   Story Starters               Entering the classroom, students are given a prompt or story starter with guidelines for timeframe, length of writing, etc. Examples                                            of story starters: A long time ago, the old people say... or, At a time when the rivers were made of chocolate and wishes could                                           come true... Back in the days when animals could talk... Here's a story I learnt from an owl. I told it to a king. He gave me this pin.                              I want to tell you now the story of … I will tell you a story which was told to me when I was a little boy/girl.    In a land that never                                            was in a time that could never be...
53)  Suggestion Box           Useful for collecting any form of anonymous feedback of previous lesson or activity. Student opinions can be regularly collected as                                       part of class activities, or the box could be used in the classroom as an informal method for students to make comments about                                           activities in the classroom. Often most effective when paired with the Admit Slip/Exit Slip approach.
54)   Surveys                         Hand out a mini-survey at the beginning of a unit, topic, etc. that asks for opinions and knowledge concerning the subject material.
55)   Transparencies            Transparencies may be used during direct instruction as a guide to the teacher, to allow them to eliminate using separate                                                        lecture notes, and also as a means to quickly show many graphics. Other uses of transparencies include: presentation of                                                      quizzes, problems of the day, jokes, cartoons, and to present problems that can then be turned over to students to complete                                                 for the class.
56)   Unknown Objects         Display an object in class that students are unlikely to recognize. Ask students to write three questions they want to ask about it.                                           Can be used as writing or discussion prompts, as subjects for an investigation, or even in an art class.
57)   Venn Diagrams            Display partial Venn Diagram and have students fill in the rest. It is a form of graphic organizer commonly used in mathematics                                               and comparisons.        
58)   Vocabulary List            Give students a word or a list of words and discuss briefly to familiarize them before they begin the lesson, story, or unit.
59)  Want Ads                     Have students write want ads. Varieties include "historical," "humorous," and as a famous character.
60)   What Is It?                    The teacher displays an object in class that is unfamiliar or has some historical significance. Students are asked to identify the                                              object, describe how it might have been used, or how it might be related to the topic.
61)   Word Associates          Require students upon entering class to identify which word or object is different from a series of others. Students then make a                                       general statement to link the other words or objects. It requires higher-level thinking skills and help students identify relationships                                            between words   while recognizing categorizing factors. Examples:  In these groups, which one does not belong?  Explain why.                                                                 • FRANCE  GERMANY  GREECE  JAPAN                      • cm    m    in.   mm                                                                                                                       • 70, 25, 13, 1035, 260                                                   • condensation, precipitation, perspiration, percolation
62)   Word Search                Especially for spelling words or topic vocabulary. Go to  http://www.puzzlemaker.com/  to create your own word search to start                                          class.
63)   Word Sort                    Have Word Sort packets or envelopes ready for students as they enter the classroom or display on board. Organizing and                                                           classifying words so that relationships among words can be seen is the goal of word sorts. A word sort activity requires students to                                          categorize words. In open sort activities, the way of sorting words is not given ahead of time. Rather, students are given words to                                           write on index cards and told to group the words together in some way. Then they discuss the different ways they grouped the                                               words and the reasons behind their groupings. In closed word sorts, students are told how to group the words. You might say,                                      "Sort the words according to whether they are places in South America or North America”, or “Sort by sexual reproduction or                                      asexual reproduction”, “Sort by parts of speech”, etc. Word sorts can be done with the students working individually, in pairs, or in                                        small groups.   
64)   Wordsplash                  Prepare a collection of key terms from a written passage which the students are about to read and give as they enter the class.                                                The terms selected represent important ideas that the teacher wants students to attend to when they actually do the reading later,                                             but initially the students' task is to make predictive statements about how each of the terms relates to the title of the reading.                                                Display             selected terms randomly and at angles on a visual (overhead or chart). Students brainstorm and generate complete                                             statements (not just words or phrases) which predict the relationship between each term and the topic. Once students have                                          generated statements for each term they turn to the printed material, read to check the accuracy of their predictive statements and                                              revise where needed. "Splash" refers to the random arrangement of the key terms around the topic at the start of the activity.
65)   Spotlight On               Similar to "Student of the Week." The work and background of a single student is showcased to the class and students                                      are asked to say three positive things about that person’s work.



http://fcstn.net/Show%20Me%20the%20Strategies_files/image009.gifPrime Time, Cont. (Student Processing Time)
Keeping Your Students Engaged/ Cooperative Learning & Group Activities/Assessments/HOTS
1)            Active Learning            Any approach that engages learners by matching instruction to the learner's interests, understanding, and developmental                                                   level. Often includes hands-on and authentic activities.
2)            Acronyms                    Memory tool. Create an acronym involving a classroom topic. When the learner is able to recall the first letter of each elements,                                              he/she will remember the broader info. Ex. ROY G. BIV – Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet Light Colors in                                                     rainbow; Peas—Physical, Emotional, Academic, Social. The four categories of student needs
3)            Advertisements            Students create advertisements of: 10What they have learned, 2) How they learned it, 3) What application possibilities the                                                  knowledge/skills have. They post their advertisements. They go shopping tour and jot down notes they wish to remember.
4)            Agendas                       These are personalized lists of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time, usually two to three weeks. Student                                                 agendas throughout a class will have similar and dissimilar elements
5)            Agree/Disagree Teacher makes a statement about a controversial issue. The students then line up in proportion to their agreement or             Line-Up              disagreement with the issue. Teacher has signs which say (strongly agree, strongly disagree) Students discuss with the                                                  person next to them why they took the position they did. Examples of appropriate questions include if stem cell research                                                  should be legal in the United States, should immigration be stopped in this country, etc.
6)            Agreement Circles        Used to explore opinions. As students stand in a circle, facing each other, the teacher makes a statement. Students who                                                   agree with the statement step into the circle.
7)            Analogy                       Make analogies by comparing problem term to a randomly selected term ( for example, compare algebra to a cracker) Then use                                            the new combination to solve a problem or create something.
8)            Alternative                    Any of a variety of assessments that allow teachers to evaluate their students' understanding or performance. Examples    Assessments   include: portfolios, journals, and authentic assessments.  
9)            Assumption Smashing List assumptions, then eliminate one. What might happen? (for example, "All forms of transportation are now free." What is                                                the effect on society?)
10)        Author's Chair              Students sit in a chair at the front of the class and present their work to the class.
11)        Autobiographies          Students write their life stories or explore the lives of prominent people by reading published autobiographies.
12)        Autopsies                     Give students a chance to improve their scores by doing a test autopsy. They correct their mistakes and then write a half page                                      reflection on why they did so poorly and what they should have done differently. They earn a half point for each corrected                                                   answer. For example, if they got 15 out of 25 and did an autopsy correcting them all, their new score would be 20. Test scores                                       improve and the students are really taking ownership of their work.
13)        Baggage Claim Pass out index cards or paper with topic or vocab word written on one side or top as their “suitcase”. Have a silent 3-5 min. for                                         students to fill their suitcase with written info describing or facts related to card. Then get up and find a partner to share their                                         baggage with by taking turns explaining what the “suitcase: contains. Swap cards (suitcases) and find a new partner to explain                               and swap cards (suitcases) with. When you call time, they claim their baggage by listening to cards read aloud. You can collect                                       cards for later use.
14)        Barrier Exercise           Students work in pairs. Adapt a crossword puzzle so that each student has some of the answers and some of the clues and                                                 each student must find the missing clues/answers by asking their partner. Each member of pair is given the puzzle, which the                                    other member cannot see because of a barrier such as a low cardboard screen on a desktop which is put between the two                                          students. This activity allows students to practice vocabulary related to a new topic.
15)        Basket Stories With students in small groups give each group a basket with three kinds of objects from nature (flat leaves, sticks, stones...), 3                                      colors of paper, cut up into small squares, and pens. Discuss sequencing words (first, then, next, finally...) and common story                                          endings and beginnings (once upon a time, once long ago, in a land far from here .. was never seen again, still lives there                                                       today...) On the pieces of paper, students write the name of an interesting place, past-time actions or events,  and character                                        names. Now, one by one, students tell stories! To create story, s/he first reaches into the           basket and pull out a "person". This                                     is main character in story. Next, pull out a "place". Whenever storyteller gets stuck, a new action is pulled out. Continue at least                                                 4 different items have been taken from basket. All items taken from the basket must be used in the story. When the first                                                      storyteller is done, all prompts go back into basket, and next storyteller begins. Add as many places, characters, actions, or                                             objects to the baskets as you wish. Short cut: bring the baskets already made up.
16)        Basketball                    Write at least 25 ‘easy’ review questions. Write at least 25 ‘hard’ review questions. Buy or make a small (3-4 inches            Review Game         diameter) ball or you can make one with a paper wad in the middle surrounded by a few layers of masking tape. Set up the                                             room with a garbage can in the front. This will be the ‘basket’. Place a piece of masking tape on the floor approximately 3 feet                                     from the basket and place a piece of tape on the floor  approximately 8 feet from the basket. Divide the students into two                                                            teams. Explain that each student must answer the questions given to them. Easy and hard questions will be evenly                                            interspersed. Keep score for the questions. Easy questions are worth 1 points each and hard questions are worth 2. If a                                                             student gets an easy question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an ‘extra point’. They will shoot from the tape mark that                                          is furthest from the basket. If a student gets a hard question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an ‘extra point’. They will                                  shoot from the tape mark that is closest to the basket. Whoever has the most points at the end of the game wins.
17)        Beach Ball                    A fun way of setting a purpose for reading. A question is written on each section of the beach ball.
            Questions                    Class forms a large circle. The teacher calls out a name and tosses ball to the student. Student chooses to answer any                                                                         question on the ball.  The student then calls out another students name and tosses them the ball. That student may choose to                                                            add to the last answer or to answer a different question. Continue until all questions have been answered. (Example of                                                                        questions: What is the title and who is the author of the story?  Who are the main characters? How does the story begin? What                                                      happened in the middle of the story? How does the story end? What was your favorite part?
18)        Bingo 1                        Students write down six words about topic or from vocabulary list. The teacher says a word. Students cross through the word if                                       they have it. First person with all six words crossed out is the winner.
19)        Bingo 2                        Students write six words from vocabulary of the topic. Teacher calls out the definition. Students cross off word if it is on their                                             list. First person with all six words crossed out is the winner.
20)        Bingo Cards                 The website below will allow you to make and print bingo cards for your class. You can purchase plastic marks or make your own.
21)        Bio-Poem                     Individually written poem by answering questions or completing prompts to write a poem.
22)        Book Reports               A factual, written summary of a book. Can be in creative forms such as poster, brochure, etc.
23)        Brainstorming              Group process where all ideas are accepted and recorded. This is a great strategy for motivating students at the beginning of a                                         unit of study.  For example, “Tell me everything you know about the water cycle.”  Students like to see their response on board.
24)        Brochures                    Students research a topic then create a brochure to explain the topic to others.
25)        Buzz Sessions             Small, informal group discussions.
26)        CAI                               Computer-Assisted Instruction; Students learn at own pace with interactive computer programs.
27)        CATs                            Classroom Assessment Techniques: Simple, in-class activities that give both you and your students instant, useful feedback                                         on the teaching-learning process. They can be in the form of oral responses, written responses, or signals. Everyone responds                                        at the same time.  Example of oral response: “Class, when I say Tell Me, I want everyone to say the name of this figure.                                             Ready, Tell Me”  - Use thumbs up / thumbs down for True / False questions; Agree or Disagree Cards, etc.
28)        Capsule Vocabulary     A teaching strategy to explore vocabulary.  Students listen to, speak, write, and read words related to a particular topic. These                                        topically related words (using approximately six words works best) are presented one at a time by the teacher, who writes each                                        word on the board, briefly tells the students about the word. After all the words have been introduced have each student copy                                       the words onto a sheet of paper. Pair the students and give each pair a limited time (3 - 5 minutes) to try to use the words in a                                            conversation about the topic. Students should check off the words as they're able to sneak them into the conversation. Finally,                                       students write a paragraph about the topic in which they use as many of the words as possible.                                       

copy                                       the words onto a sheet of paper. Pair the students and give each pair a limited time (3 - 5 minutes) to try to use the words in a                                            conversation about the topic. Students should check off the words as they're able to sneak them into the conversation. Finally,                                       students write a paragraph about the topic in which they use as many of the words as possible.                                       
29)        Carousel                      Teacher generates X number of questions for topic and writes each question on a separate piece of poster board or chart Brainstorming          paper. (Note: The number of questions should reflect the number of groups you intend to use during this activity.)  Post                                                          questions sheets around your classroom. Divide students into groups of 5 or less Direct each group to stand in front of a                                                       homebase question station.  Give each group a colored marker for writing their ideas at the question stations. (Use a different                                     color marker for tracking each group.)  Inform groups that they will have X number of minutes to brainstorm and write ideas at                                       each question station. Students rotate around the classroom in small groups, stopping at various stations for a designated                                         amount of time.  While at each station, students will discuss posted topics or different aspects of a single topic through                                                  conversation with peers. When time is called, groups will rotate to the next station in clockwise order.  Numbering the stations                                 will make this easy for students to track. Before leaving the final question station, have each group select the top 3 ideas from                                        their station to share with the entire class.
30)        Cause and Effect          A visual representation of what happened and why. Students write what happened and why in first box or circle; In the second box Graphic Structure they tell what happened and why as a result of the events of the first box; this continues through the reading to show the                                                         relationships of the various events.
31)        Chants                         Rhythmic text, repeated orally by individuals or a group to improve recall.
32)        Choice Boards             With this strategy, work assignments are written on cards that are placed in hanging pockets. By asking a student to select a card                                                 from a particular row of pockets, the teacher targets work toward students needs yet allows student choice.
33)        Choices                        Offering students a choice between two alternatives is a simple technique,  but it's very motivating.  The reality is that human                                                beings prefer choices to singular dictation.  Young people like to exercise their freedom of choice, such as, "Which kind of                                                   project do you prefer - written or oral?"  These are motivators of choice - and choice works. Remarkably, this approach works                                           equally well for both large and small issues.
34)        Choral Response          In response to a cue, all students in the group respond verbally at the same time. The response can be either an answer or a                                              question, or to repeat something the teacher has said. Often used in repeating of computational facts or vocabulary.
35)        Chunking                     A dividing strategy providing students with the ability to break the text into shorter, more manageable units. Teacher models and                                            instructs in determining appropriate “chunking: indicators (i.e., examples, transition words, and paragraphing) to lead students’                                   independently chunking the text. Method for memorizing lists, numbers. Works best when the order of the items is not important.                                             Keep chunks to 5-9.  
36)        CIR                               (Cooperative Integrated Reading) A cooperative approach to reading in which students work in pairs for practice and to                                                   prepare for assessments. Teacher-administered assessments are not taken until the student's teammates decide they are                                           ready for the assessment.
37)        Class Publication         Students collaborate to create a written work to be published. Formats might include: magazine, newspaper, brochure, map,                                              newsletter, or yearbook.
38)        Clock Partners             Distribute a handout with a clock on it or lines for appointment times. Ask students to make “appointments” with peers. You can                                      sign up for a specific time if appropriate) Periodicallyduring class, you ask students to find their ___o’clock appointment to meet                                      and discuss what has been taught.  
39)        Cloze Procedure          An activity created by the teacher to give students practice with language usage. The teacher selects a passage of text, marks                                          out some of the words, then rewrites the text with blank lines where the marked out words were. The result is a "fill in the                                                     blank" that should be enjoyable for the student while at the same time giving the teacher information about the student's                                                     language skills.
40)        Clue                             Group problem-solving with each team member given a different clue.
41)        Clustering                    Graphic way of organizing concepts proposed during brainstorming. Similar to concept-mapping.
42)        Co-op                           Cooperative learning method where teams work to prepare and present a topic to the whole class.
43)        Collaborative Learning Any kind of work that involves two or more students.
44)        Collages                       Students gather images (clippings from magazines, photographs, or their own drawings) and organize them to illustrate a                                                             concept or point of view.
45)        Competitions               Competitions can be useful in motivating some student to learn. Team competitions especially effective in the classroom if they                                      are tied to a collaborative practice or review activity before the competition.
46)        Concentration              Pairs of cards are created (name of concept on one, description on other for instance). Students take turns. On each turn                                                     student chooses 2 cards from face- down arrangement. Students keep pairs which they correctly identify as matching.
47)        Concept Map                A graphic organizer used to represent related concepts and ideas. It gives students a visual “map” of the organization of                                                 ideas/concepts. Concept maps help students understand difficult passages of text through organization of the main ideas                                                       presented in the material.
48)        Connect Two                Select 10 to 12 words or phrases you think are important for students to know prior to a reading selection. List the words on                                                 board for students to copy on small pieces of paper. Read the list of words with students. Ask students to “connect two” or                                      choose two words they think might belong together, and state the reason, e.g. “I would connect ______ and _______                                                      because.”  During reading students will look for evidence to support or refute their connections.
49)        Cooperative Learning   Technique for grouping students for learning including five defining elements: 1.Positive interdependence (a sense of sink or swim                                         together), 2.Face-to-Face promoting interaction (helping each other learn, applauding success and efforts), 3.Individual and group                              accountability (each of us has to contribute to the group achieving its goal), 4.Interpersonal and small group skills (communication,                                             trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution), and 5.Group processing (reflecting on how well the team is functioning                                             and how t function even better). Vary criteria and patterns for grouping, manage size, and don’t overuse. See more in Marzano’s                                      Classroom Instruction That Works.
50)        Cooperative Review      Groups take turns asking other groups questions. Often conducted as a game where points are awarded.
51)        Corners                        A cooperative structure that enables students to choose and discuss a particular dimension of a topic. Post different                                                     dimensions of a topic in designated corners of the room.  Examples may include –Who is your favorite character?; What region                                           would you most like to study?, If you were the leader of your country, which issue would be your top priority? Each student                                               selects a particular dimension in response to a question asked by the teacher and moves to the appropriate corner. Once in                                              their corner, students pair up to discuss the reasons for their choice. After discussion, the teacher randomly selects pairs from                                    each corner to report their thinking to the class. 
52)        Crazy Definitions          For this activity it's not essential that everyone have a complete understanding of each term, but at least a few have some                                                           idea. Pick several terms that have the best potential to be misunderstood. Tell the students to each take a piece of paper and                                        rip it into eighths, putting their name on each scrap. Call out the first term. Students have one minute to write its definition. If                                                someone does not know the term, they still have to write a creative definition that would be likely to fool someone else. When                                        the students are done with their definitions, they walk silently up to the teacher and turn it in. At this point, the teacher should                                    be choosing four of the slips: three incorrect versions and one that is correct. Read all four definitions. Tell students that they                                        are to vote for the correct one. Write the number of votes received on each slip. Have students tally their own points. Each                                             student who votes correctly earns the amount of points you assign. The authors of the four definitions get one point for each                                           person who voted for the definition. You get some fairly hilarious definitions.  What a bonding experience.
53)        Cubing                         A technique for swiftly considering a topic from 6 points of view, with the emphasis put on “swiftly” and “6”. Using all six sides of                                              the cube: 1)Describe it-Look closely, describe what you see. Colors, shapes, sizes, etc., 2)Compare it-What is it similar to or                                       different from?, 3)Associate it-What does it make you think of. It can be similar or different things, different times, people, places,                                             4)Analyze it, 5)Apply, & 6)Argue for or against it. Put students in small groups and let them roll until all are used.
54)        Cues & Questions        A technique for activating prior knowledge in an informal yet effective way. It helps students retrieve information they already know                                              about a topic. Cues involve “hints” about what students are about to experience; questions do similarly. See more in Marzano’s                                         Classroom Instruction That Works.
55)        Cushioning & Asking   Teacher aims to reduce anxiety & maximize a relaxed open-mind attentiveness  by announcing the study of something new today                                             and not to feel a need to understand completely right now. Teacher then presents concept or principle. Then teacher asks                                            students to work on individual questions, but says “Practice good thinking, “If you get stuck, ask any friend for help.”
56)        Debates                        Debates are arguments carried out according to agreed upon rules and used in the classroom to engage students and help                                                them make connections to the curriculum.
57)        Discussion                   Classroom discussions typically begin with the teacher describing the goal or purpose of the discussion. Sometimes                                                       discussions may be initiated by the posing of an open-ended question. Teachers can employ a number of techniques to                                                   encourage students to participate in discussions, including calling on specific people, or assigning students to be an "expert" or                                                 leader for various parts of the discussion. Many cooperative activities include a "small group" discussion as teams work                                                   together.
58)        Discussion AppointmentsUse a photocopy of a country or continent, US with states labeled or Europe with countries labeled, and have students get                                          signatures of classmates (one per state or country) so that at a later time, teacher can ask them to get together with their                                                      Kentucky partner or their Spain partner for discussion of concept, etc.
59)        Discussion Web           An organizer that allows students to look at both sides of an issue before making a decision based on evidence. Choose a                                              selection that has potential for opposing viewpoints. (A transparency of the Discussion Web to be used for class review is helpful.)                                              A question should be posed and written on the web. Can work with a partner to brainstorm responses to the question and then get                                              with other partner to compare or can do individually then compare with another. Spokesperson for group or call on individuals.                                               See Linda Stewart or Donna Sears for worksheet template.
60)        Dramatizing                 Students act out roles from stories or historical events.
61)        Drill                              Practice by repetition. Often used to reinforce grammar and basic math skills.
62)        Driting                          Drawing and writing. Used often in foreign language classes.
63)        DR-TA                          (Directed Reading and Thinking Activity) Teachers guide reading and stimulate questions through the judicious use of questions.                                            Have students read chunked text, stop as directed, and interact with them, in order to model the behavior of good reading. Allow                                        students to skim the text, make some predictions about its meaning, main ideas/concepts or other information. Review the title—                                              ask for a prediction and explanation; continue through headings, graphs, maps, even pull out quotes to activate schema and                                        provide an orientation to the text.
64)        Eight Square                Group activity to gather information on issue/ topic discussed. Students fold a piece of paper into 8 squares. Student then                                                   search around room to find 8 people who can give 8 different pieces of information. Ex. 8 things you have learned about                                                   Ancient Rome. The person who has added the information is to sign the section they have added the information to. Debrief by                                        asking students for the information they have gathered and who provided them with that information. This can be recorded on                                         blackboard.
65)        Elevator Speech           Small group activity to encourage sharing of information. Allow preparation time and then student is to give a one minute                                                        speech on what they have learned in lesson/unit. Change the audience – ex. student to prepare speech for parent, principal,                                        another teacher 
66)        El Zippo Game             Used to review. To prepare, ask students to make up a certain number of questions and answers based upon what they have                                                been taught. The next day the students have their notebooks and are ready to begin the El Zippo Game. It’s called 'El Zippo'                                      because only one person is allowed to speak at a time and no one can say anything unless the speaker recognizes and calls                                                upon them. Teacher starts game by asking a question. Students who know the answer raise their hands. The student who is                                      called on and answers correctly takes the teacher's place at the front of the room, and the teacher moves to the student's desk.                                           Procedure is repeated with the student asking the question and then moving to the desk of the student answering correctly.
67)        Envelope, Please         An activating strategy used prior to beginning a new topic. Have topic of the day in envelope.
68)        Envoy                          Form students into groups to discuss topic. Select one student from each group to be the envoy. Groups discuss issue and                                        then the envoy reports to another group and also listens to that group’s report. Envoy returns to original group and exchanges                                                 new ideas that have been discussed.
69)        Essays                         A short, written work, centered on a single subject.
70)        Estimation Lineup        An activity designed to activate students' prior knowledge before new material is presented.
71)        Fan-n-Pick                    Teacher prepares questions over content on index cards; Put students in groups of 3 or 4      ; rotate positions                                                                       Person 1: Fans the Cards
                                                            Person 2: Picks and reads a card
                                                            Person 3: Answers the question
                                                            Person 4: Responds to the answer, praising it or adding to it (If there's no person 4, skip it or persons 1 & 2 can do it)
72)        Find Someone Who     A variation of the Human Scavenger Hunt. Usually this activity is used to encourage students to seek out the students in class                                          who know the answers to specific content questions. This works most effectively if each student is an "expert" on a different                                             topic or sub-topic than the others in the class.


73)        Find the Fib                 Team activity where groups of students write two true statements and one false statement, then challenge other teams (or the                                        teacher) to "Find the Fib."
74)        Flash Cards                  Traditional flash cards are note cards with a question, problem, or fact on one side, and the answer or a related fact on the                                             other side. Flash cards can be used by individual students for independent practice, or can be used by pairs of students to                                         practice as a team. More recently, online flash cards have appeared on the Internet. Online flash cards take many forms, but                                           typically include either a box where you can type in your answer, or have sets of answers to choose from.
75)        Focused Practice         Important technique for practicing a complex, multistep skill or process, such as the research process, scientific inquiry, or the                                          writing process. For example, in writing focusing on writing better conclusions, etc.
76)        Foldables                     Paper folding activities that can be implemented into the classroom as reading, study, and assessment tools. They can be used in                                            pre-reading, during, and after reading for study guides, collection points, etc. See Linda Stewart for math, social studies, and                                science examples. 
77)        Forced Choice A classroom activity in which a small number of choices are placed around the classroom and students are asked to examine                                             all the choices, then stand next to their choice. Students selecting the same choice then discuss reasons or advantages and                                          disadvantages of their choice.
78)        Four Corners                Label the four corners of the room with "Disagree, Strongly Disagree, Agree, Strongly Agree." Read a controversial statement                                            and have students write on a piece of paper whether they agree, disagree, strongly agree, or strongly disagree with the                                              statement. When all are finished writing, have students go to the corner representing their point of view. All student sharing a                                         point of view work together to collect evident and present an argument supporting their beliefs.
79)        Freewriting                   Freewriting is a timed activity to stimulate the flow of ideas and words. Students are given a topic and must write everything                                            they can think of about the topic. The rules are that students must not stop writing, even if they "run out of things to say," and                                        they may not do any editing or criticism during the writing. After the time is up, you can either read the writing aloud, or scan                                               what you have written and pull out ideas or phrases you can use.
80)        Games                         Games can take many forms, but in the classroom, any activity that involves a competition, social interaction, and some form                                        of prize or award would be considered a game. Classroom game activities are typically not graded, and student participation is                                       based on the desire to contribute to a team or to individually achieve some prize or recognition. Usually games have "winners."                                             Ideally, even the "losers" of the game should feel that the experience was enjoyable. Examples: Hangman, Battleship, Win, lose,                                              Draw
81)        Generating & Testing   Generating and Testing Hypotheses is the most powerful and analytic of cognitive operations. This technique can be approached
         Hypotheses                  in a more inductive or deductive manner. Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions                                                       by providing students with templates for reporting their work, sentence stems to help them articulate, ask students to turn in                                                         audiotapes on which they explain their hypotheses and conclusions, provide rubrics so they know the criteria on which they will be                                               evaluated are based on the quality of their explanations, and set up events during which parents or community members ask to                                                            students to explain their thinking.  Six different tasks include Systems Analysis, Problem Solving, Historical Investigations,                                                            Invention, Experimental Inquiry, and Decision Making. See more in Marzano’s Classroom Instruction That Works.  
82)        GIST Statements          This strategy assists students with focusing on the main idea of the passage. Through class and group discussion, students have                                               the opportunity to learn how others think as they state their ideas and reasons. Through this process teachers are able to check                                 students’ understanding of summarization and determine if students can pinpoint the main idea. Assign students a short passage                                        to read. Then have them write one statement that reveals the “gist” or main idea of the selection. Discuss with class and have                                           students write a one sentence gist statement summarizing what the class decided was the main idea. Extensions: 1.Students                                     engaged in reading chunked text and writing gist statements after each chunk. After completing the entire reading, students use                                      gist statements to write a summary. 2. Have students write gist as a newsflash so that statement must be able to be read in 30                                   seconds or less. 3. Create visuals instead of or in addition to written summaries.
83)        Graffiti Walls                A graffiti wall is a variation on the hot potato strategy. As with hot potato several topics or questions are written on sheets of                                        paper are posted on the walls or floor around the room and the students move freely paper and several students work on each                                          piece of paper at the same time. The difference however is that the large sheets or in groups from one piece of paper to the                                            next. Give the students a signal for when they should rotate.
84)        Graphic Organizers      Metacognitive tool in a visual form such as Sunshine Wheel, Concept Web, Mind Map, Venn Diagram, Ranking Ladder, Fishbone                                     Diagram, Sequence Chart, Cross-Classification Chart, Right Angle, Pie Chart, and Target. Also “At A Glance” @ This Week-help                                             kids get organized; Big Mac Paragraph Format-help kids write; Bingo Cards-printable bingo cards; and much more at the website                                     below
85)        Greeting Cards             Poetry writing; Students design and create greeting cards to share with friends and relatives.
86)        Green Light                  After teaching the day's lesson, assign the first part of the assignment. When the students have completed those problems                                          they raise their hands and the teacher corrects and puts a green dot on their paper if they’re ok or a red light if they need to                                            check their work. Green light means they can go and complete the assignment.
87)        Group Investigation     The class is divided into teams. Teams select topics to investigate, gather information, prepare a report, then assemble to                                                   present their findings to the entire class.
88)        Group Summary          Ask the students to state the important ideas in what they have read. List the points that the students give in the form of notes Writing                           on the board. Using these notes, guide the class in constructing a group summary statement. This technique is a natural                                                       predecessor to individually created summaries.
89)        Guided Lecture            Students listen to 15 minutes of lecture without taking notes. At the end, they spend five minutes recording all they can recall.                                                Next, students are put in small discussion groups to reconstruct the lecture and prepare complete notes, using the teacher to                                  resolve questions that arise.
90)        Guided Practice           Guided Practice is a form of scaffolding. It allows learners to attempt things they would not be capable of without assistance. In                                                 the classroom, guided practice usually looks like a combination of individual work, close observation by the teacher, and short                                    segments of individual or whole class instruction. Teacher may pose a problem, students work at desk, teacher moves around                                             room checking progress, then works problem on board, teacher assesses mastery.
91)        Hands-On                     Hands-On means any instructional activity that is emphasizes students working with objects relevant to the content being                                                            studied. Variations include: Hands-On Science, Hands-On Math, and so on.
92)        Highlighting                 Marking key concepts with a different color to emphasize importance.
93)        Hot Seat                       Before class begins, have 3-5 “Hot Seats” selected. Students sitting in those seats will be asked to summarize yesterdays lesson,                                            tell the steps in a mathematical solution, etc.
94)        Hot Potato                    Hot Potato is a fast-paced group activity where each group is given a sheet of paper with a topic to brainstorm. On a given                                            signal the papers are passed around to the next group who read what has been written and add extra ideas to the sheet. The                                      process is repeated until the papers arrive back at their starting point.
95)        HOTS                           (Higher Order Thinking Skills) In the simplest sense, higher order thinking is any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts.                                       The two key reasons to improve higher order thinking skills are first, to enable students to apply facts to solve real world                                                   problems, and second, to improve retention of facts. In addition to the basic meaning of "higher order thinking skills"
96)        Hot Seat                       Each row of students is given a stack of cards with words. The first student to go lays them all out so he/she can see them.                                            The teacher reads the definition. The students pass the correct card up. Other students in the row must look and see that it is                                          the correct. The one in front holds it up and when they do so that row gets a point.  Switch at least every 3 points (everybody                                           moves up one) so one isn’t stuck in the Hot Seat.  Rules:  They must be seated at all times, it must pass through everyone’s                                             hands, they must be silent before the word is announced, and they must not help the person in the “hot seat.”  You may also                                              try giving the students cards with definitions, and teacher calls out words. Can also be used with math problems and solutions
97)        Idea Spinner                Teacher creates a spinner marked into four quadrants and labeled "Predict, Explain, Summarize, Evaluate." After new material                                         is presented, the teacher spins the spinner and asks students to answer a question based on the location of the spinner. For                                    example, if the spinner lands in the "Summarize" quadrant, the teacher might say, "List the key concepts just presented."
98)        I Have – Who Has?       Students each receive a card with a vocabulary word and a definition (not the definition to the vocabulary word that is on their                                            card). Students must be familiar with all the definitions so that they know when it’s their turn. The teacher will start out with a                                       definition and will say out loud, “Who has the word meaning coming into a foreign country to live?”. The person who has that                                                vocabulary word would stand and say, “I have immigration. Who has the word meaning resistance to disease?” The person                                             with the word calls out, “I have immunity. Who has…..and so on. This game requires all students to be paying attention at all                                    times. Kids love this game. (Can also be used with math problems /solutions.)
99)        “I’m Thinking of a Word” Key words are listed on board. Teacher has large index cards with words on one side and clues on the other. Give students Game                   clues: Ex. Not long after I wake up in the morning, I become this.  Famished is a synonym for the word. I end with an ‘s’. I have                                        three syllables.” Students write down their guess on a piece of paper. Then turn the correct answer toward the group. They in                               turn hold up their answer to see if there is a match. (key word-ravenous)
100)     Index Card (3x5)           Each student gets a 3x5 card. They are given ten minutes to write anything (as much as they can write) on the card they wish to                                        remember. Students pair and compare cards. They can add on to their if they wish. The cards may be used during “pop” quizzes                                                as a resource.
101)     Inside-Outside Circle    Review technique. Inside and outside circles of students face each other. Within each pair of facing students, students quiz                                             each other with questions they have written. Outside circle moves to create new pairs. Repeat.
102)     Interviews                    Interviews may be by the student or may be a form of assessment of the student.
103)     Jeopardy                      Like the television game.Many variations (individual or team competitions). Board with "answers" is prepared in advance (for                                               overhead or on large cardboard sheet). Students respond with acceptable "question."
104)     Jigsaw                         Each student on the team becomes an "expert" on one topic by working with members from other teams assigned the                                                     corresponding expert topic. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group; and students are all assessed                                          on all aspects of the topic. 
105)     Jigsaw II                      Cooperative activity. Basic steps: Read with group, discuss individual topic with expert groups, report back to team (to teach                                               them what you learned in your expert group), test, team recognition.
106)     Keyword Memory Method In the keyword method, students generate keywords that are similar to the concepts to be memorized, then put the                                                      keywords into an arrangement that can be mentally "pictured." For example, given the task of memorizing "St. Paul is the                                                     capital of Minnesota," the student would first break up the phrase into five related words: saint paul cap mini soda." Finally the                                        student             would image their favorite "Paul" with a halo as a cap and drinking a very small soda.
107)     Learning Centers          Individual stations where individual or paired students explore resources.Designed to extend knowledge introduced in whole                                             group instruction.
108)     Learning Contracts       A form of individualized, active learning, in which the student proposes a course of study to satisfy an academic requirement                                          and a teacher checks and approves the contract. The student typically works independently until assistance is needed from the                                          teacher, at which point it is the responsibility of the student to ask for help. This form of instruction is becoming more common                                         in universities and in distance learning. A second variety of learning contract is sometimes undertaken with elementary or                                                  secondary students in which the teacher takes a more active role and the function of the contract is to focus the student's                                                attention on specific skills or concepts to be learned.
109)     Learning Posts Areas in room are designated as “listening posts” with a particular topic or concept. Groups rotate or individuals are assigned to a                                                post. They have 3-5 minutes to “hear” what is offered. One students reports out with a one minute summary of group’s discussion.
110)     Learning Stations         Individual stations where individual or paired students explore resources.Designed to extend knowledge introduced in whole                                             group instruction.
111)     Library Research          Many projects require research in the library to enable students to supplement the information they can find in their textbooks                                            and on the Internet. To further encourage library research, teachers can provide guidelines for projects and writing                                                     assignments to encourage students to become familiar with using resources in the library.
112)     Line-Up                        Student teams are given concepts that can be put in order. Each team member holds one concept and the members line up to                                                 represent the correct order.
113)     Listen-Think-Pair-Share Students listen to questions, individually think about a response, discuss their ideas with a partner, then share their ideas                                              with the class.
114)     Manipulatives               Manipulatives are objects used in the classroom to allow students to make connections to concepts through touch. Examples                                      might include a bag of beans for counting, or a microscope for scientific inquiry.
115)     Map Making                 Student map making can be tied to many objectives related to mathematics, social studies, art, reading, and problem solving.
116)     Mark It Up                    Give students each a transparency sheet and have them lay it over page in their text book. With vis-à-vis markers you can                                             have them underline important text, words, etc.
117)     Match Mine                  Pair activity in which one student draws, while the other waits, then the second student tries to copy the drawing of the first                                                using only descriptions supplied by the first student.
118)     Meaningful Sentences Given vocabulary terms, students can be shown sentences in which the terms are used in a context that helps them to                                                   understand the meaning of the terms, or as an assessment, students can be asked to write meaningful sentences containing                                                key words.
119)     Medium Size Circle      First, 5-10 volunteers share something important they learned. Second, volunteers remember (restate) what one first people                                              shared. Continue until each of the original speakers have been "remembered."
120)     Message in a                Students write a tale about an imaginary adventure or trip that has left them stranded on a desert island. Their only chance for Bottle                rescue is to write a message, put it in a bottle, and put the bottle in the water, with the hope that someone will find it.                                                     Brainstorm information they should include. (For example, explain who they are, where they were going when they got                                               stranded, where they left from, and how they were traveling.) They should also include information about where they are, such                                            as the climate, what the island is like, what plants and animals they have seen, and how they are surviving. Record                                                       suggestions on the board or chart paper. When students are ready to begin writing, make maps available. When students                                                        finish, they place the tales in the bottles and set afloat in water. (children’s pool) You may want to arrange with a teacher of                                         another class to have your tales sent there. Then the students in that class can try to figure out who is the writer of each tale.
121)     Millionaire Game          To review material play  “So You Want To Be A Millionaire.” Instead of one person answering all the questions, pick students at                                        random. No one knows who will be picked until after the question is read. The reward is ½ extra credit points for everyone in                                             the class and the penalty is ¼ extra credit points lost for everyone in class. The life lines are: (1) Phone a friend. (Ask someone                                        else in class) (2) Poll the entire class. (3) Ask the teacher. (4) Ask for the question to be repeated. Once a lifeline is used, it                                        cannot be used by anyone else. Do the cheer, 'Is that your final answer?'

122)     Mix and Match              Students make pairs or sets from randomly ordered objects or concepts on cards.
123)     Mix-Freeze-Pair            Can be used as a matching game for review. Each student gets a card. Students switch cards until the teacher says freeze.                                       When the teacher says freeze, students must find their partner. Check random (or all) pairs for correct match. (cards may have                                      words / definitions, problems / solutions)
124)     Mock Trials                  Students learn about the legal system by assuming the roles of lawyers, witnesses, and judges to act out hypothetical legal                                      cases.
125)     Most Important Word   A during reading strategy in which the teacher reminds the students to think about the "most important words" for a particular                                          reading assignment. The teacher gives some examples of some important words, then students work in groups to identify                                                       others.
126)     Move-Freeze-Pair         When students need to be physically active. Have students move around the room, Freeze on your signal, then Pair with                                                    someone close by to give and/or receive information.
127)     Music                           Four key times to use music: 1) Before class begins-music sets the emotional tone, promotes interaction; 2) While learners are                                           physically moving--up tempo music motivates and encourages learners to mobilize; 3) While learners are talking in pairs or small                                          groups—provides a pad; 4) After class concludes—leaves a final positive impression
128)     Newspapers                 Newspapers as a real world source of content, or as a product produced by students.
129)     Nonlinguistic               An important aspect of learning using techniques that generate mental pictures to go along with information, as well as creating
         Representations           graphic representation for that information. Including Creating graphic representations (a variety of graphic organizers), Making                                                 physical models ( concrete representations, manipulatives, exemplars), Generating mental pictures (imagination), Drawing                                                   pictures         and pictographs, and Engaging in kinesthetic activity (physical movement). See more in Marzano’s Classroom Instruction                                                     That Works. 
130)     Note-Taking                  The process of recording information presented by a teacher for the purpose of improving recall or understanding by the                                                          student. Notes typically include a combination of direct quotes of what a teacher says, diagrams, and additions by the student                                          to add emphasis or to indicate areas where outside study may be required.
131)     Numbered Heads          Each student is assigned a number. Teacher poses question. Students huddle in their groups to make sure all can respond,                                              teacher calls a number, the student with that number answers for the group.
132)     Online Assessments    Teachers can go to the website below to find various prepared assessments according to grade level and skill, including TCAP,                                               Gateway, EOC, ACT, & SAT
133)     Oral Presentation         Oral presentations are a form of direct instruction. Lectures are the most common form of oral presentation in the classroom.                                       Other forms of oral presentation include talks given to describe a project or research findings.
134)     Outlines                       An outline is a skeletal version of some larger presentation or writing. Outlines usually include phrases or sentences that are                                              critical to the topic and are arranged in the same order that the concepts will be (or were) presented in the final version.                                                     Outlines may be used to guide the creation process in writing or planning, during a lecture to help students follow the concepts                                                 being presented, or by students in their note-taking or studying.
135)     Pair Problem Solving A problem-solving technique in which one member of the pair is the "thinker" who thinks aloud as they try to solve the problem, and
                                                        the other member is the "listener" who analyzes and provides feedback on the "thinker's" approach.
136)     Pair Project                  Pair projects take two basic forms. In the commonest form, two students work together to accomplish some task. The task may                                               be to produce a tangible object (like a poster or model) or may be to make a presentation to the class. The more global form of                                         pair project is for classes in different parts of the world to collaborate on a project. The students perform similar activities in                                      both locations then compare results.
137)     Pairs Check                  Pairs work together and check each other's work.
138)     Pairs Worksheet           Students with partner. One does odd; one does even; one partner watches as the other partner works and explains the                                                         process, then the roles reverse. Student turn in 1 paper and both get the same grade.
139)     Panels                          In a panel discussion, a small group acts as experts to answer the questions of the people in the larger group. In a classroom                                           setting, students are selected to become experts on a topic and are given at least a day to prepare for the discussion. Panel                                            discussions can also be held using outside experts.
140)     Paper Pass                   Students each develop two review questions on separate index cards or paper, and put the answers on the back. They autograph                                               their card. They pass their cards to one another as music is played in the background. They may sit or stand as they do this.                               When music stops, each class member must take the card in hand and answer the question. Then flip it over to check their                                              answer. Continue passing left, right, etc. while music plays.  
141)     Paragraph Shrinking    Partners read in pairs. For the first paragraph, one reads and the other summarizes by stating the main idea of that paragraph.                                           The partners then switch roles for the second paragraph.
142)     Partner Reading           Pairs of students read together and the listener corrects the active reader.
143)     Password                     Objective: Students will be able to identify vocabulary words with one word clues. Procedure: 
                              Write words on individual 3x5 cards. Divide class into two teams with each team choosing the first giver and receiver. The giver                                          tries to get the receiver to say the word by using one word clues. (Synonyms are real handy to know.) Givers and receivers are                                          changed if the giver has to pass (does not have a clue) and the receiver is changed when the receiver has missed two words.                                           Team with the most correct wins
144)     Peer Editing                 Students read and give feedback on the work of their peers. Peer editing is not only useful as a tool to improve students'                                                  analytical skills, but also provides students with an alternative audience for their work.
145)     Peer Evaluation            Students evaluate presentations or work of fellow students.
146)     Peer Questioning         Students ask questions of each other. Often occurs during student presentations.
147)     Peer Teaching              Each learner reads a different selection and then teaches the essence of the material to his or her randomly assigned partner.
148)     Personal White BoardsWhiteboard (shower board) purchased at a hardware store and cut into individual whiteboards for students. Have a procedure for                                       picking them up or handing them out as well as a marker & wiper to go with it. Students can then write an answer, work a problem,                                perform      a skill, etc. for instant feedback or assessment
149)     Photographed              Current brain research tells us that things are most often remembered when they have been experienced or visualized. With Vocabulary              this strategy, drama is combined with vocabulary development. A student chooses one of the vocabulary words and creates a                                          frozen representation of the word. For example, a student would strike a pose to convey the word "timid."
150)     Photo Journalism        Can be used as assessment. Students chronicle events through pictures and reporting.
151)     Pictionary                    Students create visual representations of vocabulary words. Class is divided into two groups. Teacher is the host. A player                                                from each team steps up to the board. Player 1 is given a key word to draw. Team members hopefully guess. Points awarded.                                      Team two does the same. Words are put into categories so the game progressively gets more difficult. It’s nice to have                                                       different colors of markers. Also, if you use chart paper you can keep the drawings on the wall.
152)      Pictorial Autobiography Students create collages representing their interests, background, or culture. Students can either share them and explain                                               them to the class, or post them anonymously to allow students to try to guess which collage belongs to which student.
153)     Placemat                      Group activity for sharing of ideas.Divided large piece of paper into sections- 1 section per group member. Draw a circle in the                                      middle of the paper. Each group member writes ideas about issue, or topic in their section. As each group member shares with                                              rest of group, the person to the right of speaker summarizes and records speaker’s main points in circle. 
154)     PMI                              Plus/Minus/Interesting.Group students. Give each group 3-column organizer with headings Plus/Minus/Interesting for                                                    recording responses to three questions about a topic assigned by the teacher: 1.What are the positive ideas about this?                                                    2.What are the negative ideas about this? 3. What is interesting about this? This strategy can be used within a range of                                             classroom activities such as analyzing texts or examining issues.
155)     Positive Profile            Students analyze characters from reading by completing a personality evaluation form that includes positive characteristics                                           such as "hobbies," "strengths," and "smartest action performed."
156)     Posters                        Students create posters on topic according to teacher guidelines.
157)     Prediction Pairs           Students are paired as they listen to the teacher read a passage aloud. At each pause in the reading, the teacher prompts                                               students to discuss with their partner what they predict will happen next in the reading.
158)     Preposition                  Creativity activity: list of prepositions (above, in, because, opposite) is interposed between two lists of words, then try to make
Creation                       sense of the combinations.Used to generate novel solutions to problems.
159)     Presentations               Students prepare presentations on topic according to teacher guidelines.
160)     Previewing the Text      Previewing the text provides an opportunity for readers to skim through the text before actually reading. This strategy provides                                            students with a mental outline of the text they will be reading. Previewing will help students improve their comprehension and                                 should be used automatically whenever students are faced with a new text.
161)     Projects                       Students prepare: a dance, a letter, a lesson, advertisement, animated movie, annotated bibliography, art gallery, block picture                                              story, bulletin board, bumper sticker, chart, choral reading, clay sculpture, code, collage, collection, comic strip, computer                                                    program, costumes, crossword puzzle, database, debate, demonstration, detailed illustration, diorama, diary, display, edibles,                                          editorial essay, etching, experiment, fact tile, fairy tale, family tree, fiction story, film, filmstrip, flip book, game, graph, hidden                                       picture, illustrated story, interview, jingle, joke book, journal, babeled diagram, large scale drawing, learning center, letter to the                                         editor, map with legend, mazes, mobile model, mosaic, mural, museum exhibit, musical instruments, needlework, newspaper                                     story, non-fiction, oral defense, oral report, painting, pamphlet, pantomime, papiermache, petition, photo essay, pictures picture                                      story for children, plaster of Paris model, play, poetry, political cartoon, pop-up book, postage stamp, commemoratives, press                                              conference, project cube, prototype, puppet, puppet show, puzzle, rap, radio program, rebus story, recipe, riddle, role play,                                              science fiction story, sculpture, skit, slide show, slogan, soliloquy, song, sound, story telling – Tall Tales, survey, tapes-audio-                                   video, television program, timeline, transparencies, travel brochure, venn diagram, web home page, working hypothesis, write a                                      new law, video film, and others.
162)     Puppet                         Puppets are useful for role play and presentations.
163)     Puzzles                        Student created puzzles can be used in a variety of ways. Ex. Have students draw map of continent with countries labeled.                                           Then they cut up, place in baggie and pass to partner.
164)     Online Lessons            Assistance for helping teachers. Here is one very helpful website. There are too many others to list.        
165)     Outcome Sentences     Have students complete outcome sentences to express what they learned from the lesson presented. Es.: I learned. . . ; I was                                      surprised. . . ; I’m beginning to wonder. . . ; I rediscovered. . .; I wonder. . .; I feel. . . ; I think I will. . .; In order for this strategy to                                       work effectively, outcome sentences should be varied—never repetitive.
166)     Presentations               Can be used as assessment. Student presents information is chosen pre-approved format.
167)     QAR                             Question/Answer Relationship or QAR helps students understand different levels of questioning and the relationships between                                        questions and answers. Often students respond to questions with either a literal answer or by stating that “it” is not in the text.                                         QAR provides four levels of questions: 1.) Right There!—The answer is found in the text. The words in the questions can usually                                              be found in the same sentence with the answer, 2.) Think and Search!—The answer is in the text, but the words are probably not                                        in the same sentence. Read the text; look for ideas that can be put together, and think about what the author is saying; 3.) The                                          Author and You!—The author provides ideas and makes students think, but connections to students’ knowledge are needed to                                       answer the question, and 4.) On Your Own!—Students must apply their own knowledge and what has been learned to answer the                                  question.
168)     Question, All Write       The teacher asks a question, all students reflect and make their own notes. An example is “What makes for a good paragraph?”

169)     Questions                    Have students apply "who, what, when, where, why, how" to all problems. Or ask students to generate questions.
170)     Questioning                 (from Ron Walker) Used raised hands only for difficult questions; use Call and Respond for material that should be mastered Techniques                       Remember to give wait time after each question, and ask follow-up questions; Why? Do you agree?
171)     Quickdraw                    Pair activity in which students have a short period (typically 30 seconds) to share all they know by writing with symbols or                                                       drawings.
172)     Quicktalk                      Research indicates that the act of talking about the things we learn moves short-term memory data into long term memory.
                                             First, students are numbered off as ones or twos. Say, "Number 1’s raise your hands. Turn to your partner and tell them what                                                           you know about ____. You have thirty seconds. Go!" Once 30 seconds have gone by, regain the attention and then say,                                                                  "Alright, Number 2’s, it’s your turn to share what you know. You have 30 seconds. Go!"
173)     Quickwrite                    Cousin to Quicktalk except students have a short period (typically 30 seconds) to share all they know by writing
174)     Quiz-Quiz-Trade           Students quiz a partner, get quizzed by a partner, and then trade cards to repeat the process with a new partner. Teacher or                                              class creates a set of cards based on the content to master. Each card has a matching card. For example, to learn vocabulary,                                        one card would be the word and the matching card would be the definition. Each student receives one card. Stand Up-Hand                                              Up-Pair Up. With cards in hand, all students stand up, put a hand up, and find a partner. Partner AQuizzes.Partner A quizzes                                      Partner B. For example, if Partner A has a vocabulary word, he/she asks his/her partner to define the word. If Partner A has a                                    definition, he/she reads the definition and asks his/her partner to identify the word defined. When done, students trade cards                                                and get ready for another round. Repeat a number of times.
175)     Randomized                 In situations where the teacher wants to ensure that all students have an opportunity to answer questions, the teacher
Questioning                 creates note cards with the students' names on them, then shuffles the cards. AFTER asking each question, the teacher                                                                  reveals the name of the student chosen at random to answer the question.
176)     Raps                            Songs about class topic written and presented by students.
177)     Reader's Theater          Students adapt some of their reading to present to other students in the form of a play. These productions can be simple or                                                 elaborate and include posters, programs, sets, and costumes.
178)     Read Aloud                  Done by the student or the teacher is a helpful technique for improving reading skills and engaging readers of all ages. Hearing                                              the text while looking at it on the page helps many readers process the information more effectively and understand how it should                                          be read. Reading aloud also develops students’ language sense as they hear the way words are used, pronounced, and                                                     interpreted.      
179)     Reading for                  A type of reading in which learners interact with text to collect information, or to improve their understanding of specific Information         topics.
180)     Reading Roadmap        Map to guide students in their reading.Shows when to skim, when to read carefully, questions to consider.
181)     Reciprocal Teaching    This strategy involves four components: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Begin with the generation of a
         Reinforcing Effort        summary statement, considered a “first draft” of a summary. Proceed with the questioning, clarifying, and predicting phases to                                                    engage students in analysis activities. Students take turns being the teacher for a pair or small group. Teacher role may be to                                                          clarify, ask questions, ask for predictions, etc. or form pairs, one A and one B. After a chunk of content has been presented, ask                                                A;s to rehearse half of what was presented. Invite B’s to rehearse the remaining half. The teacher circulates as pair partners                                                       rehearse, correcting any misconceptions or answering question. Teachers can ask content/process questions to the entire class.                                                Class can respond chorally or with cards they hold up, etc.
                                             Instructional techniques to address students’ attitudes and beliefs through reinforcing effort and providing recognition. Teaching                                                   about Effort and Achievement and Keeping Track of Effort and Achievement are important components. Recognition through                                                         Effective Praise vs. Ineffective Praise is the other half of this important strategy. See more in Marzano’s Classroom Instruction                                                 That Works.
182)     Relay Summary            Team activity to summarize reading. One team member writes one sentence summarizing reading then passes page to                                                            teammate. Continues until everyone in team has added at least one sentence.
183)     Reports                        Use exemplars and models and go over rubric for success.
184)     Research Papers          Use exemplars and models and go over rubric for success.
185)     Research Project          Use exemplars and models and go over rubric for success..
186)     Retelling                      Provides an opportunity for readers to process what they have read by organizing and explaining it to others. It develops                                                    students’ story grammar because they must identify crucial points and the support information. Also reinforces sequencing since it                            demands remembering information, events, and processes.  
187)     Revising                       Students can learn by revising their own work, or by revising the work of others.
188)     Rivit                             Pick six to eight important words from reading. Begin by writing numbers and drawing lines on the board to indicate how many                                       letters each word has.  Fill in the letters to the first word one at a time, as students watch. Stop after each letter and see if                                                   anyone can guess the word. Once someone has guessed the correct word, ask him or her to finish spelling it and write it on                                             the board. Begin writing the letters of the second word, pausing for a second after writing each letter to see if anyone can                                                            guess the word.  Continue in this fashion until all the words have been completely written and correctly guessed. Have                                                     students make prediction about reading based up on the words. Board at the beginning looks like this:                                                                                                                  1._ _ _ _ _
2._ _ _ _ _ _ _
189)     Role Play                     Students play the role/s of established person or character.
190)     Round Table                In groups, students write down their thoughts, solutions, and ideas. Pass the paper around the group. As each person reads,                                        they initial if they agree or leave blank if they do not. When paper returns to owner they read ideas and review own thoughts to                                          present an argument using new and different ideas. 
191)     Round-Table Discussion At a table, 4 or 5 participants informally discuss topic among themselves and with the audience.
192)     Rotating Review           Teacher puts headings on poster board or paper for review. Rotate posters around classroom from group to group. In groups,                                      each individual must add one thing they remember about the heading. Posters rotate around room until all groups have seen                                      all posters. Use different color markers for each group to track.
193)     RSQC2                         (Recall, Summarize, Question, Comment, and Connect) A summarization technique in which students Recall (list) key points,                                           Summarize in a single sentence, ask unanswered Questions, Connect the material to the goals of the course, and write an                                            evaluative Comment.
194)     Rubrics                        A tool for assessment. Teachers can go to the website below to customize a template for projects, etc.
195)     Say It                           Encourages students to put themselves in the place of characters. It can be done in groups or as a class. The first person                                                          nominates another student to answer a question by giving the reference from the teacher made grid of questions. When that                                           student has answered she nominates another student until the grid has been completed. (Ex. of questions “You are the                                                            grandfather. What was special about seeing the rainbow?”
196)     Self-Assessments         Students reflect on their performance and self performance.  Can be rubrics, checklist or questions.
197)     Scaffolding                  Providing temporary support until help is no longer needed. Can take many forms (examples, explanations, organizers, etc.)                                              but needs to build on student's existing knowledge.
198)     Scrapbook                   Can be used as assessment. Student put events, pictures, etc. in scrapbook form.
199)     Script                           Student-generated scripts and screenplays.
200)     Scavenger Hunt            Can be done on the Web or in text for lesson.
201)     Self-Assessments         Students reflect on their performance and assess themselves.
202)     Send A Problem           Each student in group puts a question on one side of an index card and an answer on the other side. Stack cards question side                                               up, place in envelope, and pass on to the next team.  Those team members pass the cards out.  A team member from group                                  number one reads its question first.  The team discusses the question, then, if they have consensus, the card is turned over.  If                                         the team does not agree with the answer, they can write an alternative answer on the back of the card. The team continues                                     until all cards are read.  Collect and pass to the next group. After the cards are returned to the original writers, discuss any                                        alternative answers.
203)     Sequencing                  Choose reading material appropriate for your students; short books or short stories. Use two works unfamiliar to your students.                                        Pair students. Give one student story A, and story B to the other, and have them read the story. Have students list the order of                                         events in the story. Students rewrite their list, jumbling the order of events. Students exchange papers. Have students sort the                                           order of events they have received from their partner. Additional exercise: Students can write their own story based on the                                              events they have just sorted. You can then lead a discussion contrasting students' writing with the original stories.                                                   Options/Variations: Use readings of historical events and discuss how history would have been different if certain events had                                       taken place in a different order.

204)     Set Objectives &           Used in a precise and sophisticated way, goal setting and feedback enhances students’ learning. Goal setting is the process of
           Provide Feedback         establishing a direction for learning to realize both short-term and long-term desires. Feedback is a technique providing students                                                       information on how well they are doing. It should be “corrective” in nature, timely, specific to a criterion, and can be student                                                            generated from rubrics.
205)     Share-Pair Circles        Divide class into two equal groups and each group forms a circle. The inner circle faces outward and the outer circle faces                                        inward, to form pairs of facing students. In response to teacher questions, each pair discusses their ideas, then one of the                                                      circles rotates to create new pairs. Repeat until the original pairs are again facing each other.
206)     Shared Writing             Each student contributes one or two sentences to a story written by the whole class.
207)     Silent Reading
208)     Silent Scavenger Hunt Good for review of multiple pages of practice done under time restraints.Teacher numbers one side of index cards for as many                      students as are in class plus 2-4 more. On the other side of the index card, teacher puts partial list of correct answers with page number where they are found. Cards are placed number side up on students’ desks (one card per desk with extras placed on tables, etc.) On signal students start by turning over the card on their own desk to check answers and change any incorrect on their paper with absolutely no talking. When time is up, students turn the card back to number face up and leave it on their desk. Next, with signal, students get up to find the next number and bring the card back to their desk, check the new set of answers against their own and wait for signal. On some cards teacher can leave blank and instruct upon questioning to use that time to look over their existing answers or blanks. Start with 45 second intervals, then 30. End by explaining learning can take place without speaking.
209)     Sitters and Movers        Number students 1’s and 2’s down rows or across seating arrangement. Have two lists of questions, one for the 1’s and another for the 2’s. Take turns asking questions and when finished or on signal, let 1’s stay seated and 2’s move to next partner. Continue moving until all questions are answered.
210)     Skill Inventory              There are two basic formats for a skill inventory. Individuals may either generate their own list of skills, or individuals may                                                  "check off" skills they possess from a list of skills. Used as a self-assessment in many fields but most often used as part of                                         career exploration or professional development.
211)     Skits
212)     Snowball                      Teacher assigns each pair of students a word (A/B partners).  Student A writes the word.  Student B writes the definition.  After                                               all students have finished, each student crushes his/her piece of paper into a "snowball."  Definitions go to one side, words on                                        the other.  When teacher signals, students throw their snowball toward the middle of the room.  Each student picks up the                                                            snowball closest to him/her and reads it.  Students then try to find the match to the word of definition on the snowball. 
213)     Somebody Wanted But So After reading activity that uses a graphical organizer to help students evaluate character ("somebody"), motivation                                                    ("wanted"), conflict ("but"), and resolution ("so").
214)     Speeches                     Use a ready made rubric or make you own. Discuss with students the requirements for success.
215)     Spelling Notebook       A student-generated list of words maintained by the student to remind them of words they need more work on.
216)     Spider Map                  A form of graphic organizer to help students see the relationship between details and the main topic.
217)     Spongy Vocabulary      To review vocabulary in any subject, take strips of masking tape and tape them to a rectangular sponge. Use a marker to write Review                 the vocabulary words on the tape. Have the students toss the sponge around the room to other students. The words that get                                             chosen can depend on which finger is touching a particular part of the sponge. For example, if a student's left finger lands on a                                        specific word that is the word they must try to define.
218)     SQ3R                           (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review)
219)     Stations                       Using stations involves setting up different spots in the classroom where students work on various tasks simultaneously. These                                     stations            invite flexible grouping because not all students need to go to all stations all the time.
220)     Sticker Partners           Hand out questions, vocab, etc. with a sticker at the top. Have two of each kind or color so they must find their matching partner                                                for what ever the assignment.
221)     Sticky Reading             During reading strategy. Give each student a large sticky note. Students are to write down any unfamiliar words that were not                                        introduced when going over vocabulary and the page number where the word was found.  After students have finished                                                       reading, discuss the words they have written. Reread passage that includes word, looking for context clues to help with the                                      definition. Look up word in the dictionary. Read the definition and discuss it.
222)     Stir the Teams              Students are assigned to teams and each student in the team has a number (typically 1 through 4). Teams discuss their group                                              answer to the teacher's question, then when the team is done they give a signal. When all teams are done, the teacher calls a                                     number (from 1 to 4) and the students with that number rotate to the next group to share their team's answer with their new                                              team. The procedure then repeats through the series of questions.
223)     Story Impressions        The teacher presents ten to fifteen terms to students prior to reading. These terms appear in the same order that they appear                                           in the reading. Students write a passage using the terms that they think predicts what will happen in the reading. Students                                              share their predictions with others. Finally, students read, comparing their predictions (story impressions) with the reading.
224)     Story Method for Memorization Each word to be memorized is included in a story made up by the student.
225)     Story Pyramid              Using the pyramid word format to respond to reading. Adapt to your content area. Add as many levels as needed.                                                       
One word reaction
_____  _____
Two words describing main character
_____ _____ _____
Three words describing the problem
_____  _____  _____  _____
Four words describing the solution
_____  _____  _____  _____  _____
Six words describing the moral of the story

226)     Story Starters               Writing activity in which students are given a prompt or story starter. Examples of story starters: A long time ago, the old                                                     people say... or At a time when the rivers were made of chocolate and wishes could come true... Back in the days when                                                     animals could talk... Here's a story I learnt from an owl. I told it to a king. He gave me this pin.  I want to tell you now the story                                        of … I will tell you a story which was told to me when I was a little boy/girl.    In a land that never was in a time that could never                                                 be...
227)     Story Structure Review Students are asked to recall key features of a story using a blank story map.
228)     Story Telling
229)     Story Telling/Retelling Teachers read stories to students then students retell the story by acting it out, answering questions, or writing about the                                                         story.
230)     Structured Note-Taking  Students are given a graphic organizer in which to record notes.
231)     Student Response Groups Small groups of students who provide peer evaluation of the work of the other students in the group.Useful for writing or                                         other creative projects because it gives the author an audience to experiment with before submitting work to a larger audience                                            or for evaluation.
232)     Students Writing          Having students write test questions is a very adaptable technique that can be used for all subjects.
Test Questions             Steps: In groups or individually Students:                                                                                                                   
 RICA Method                           Read or study a passage or graphic.
                                                      Identify relevant information.
                                                      Create a connected question and correct answer.
                                                      Add 3 distracters (incorrect answers)
                                                      Tip: Remind students that incorrect answers should be plausible. In the beginning, it may be best to have students                                                                      create questions with correct answer and teacher create 3 incorrect answers.
233)     Study Groups
234)     Study Guides               Guide prepared by teacher to help students study for test.
235)     Student Made               To help students review for exam, divide the class into the number of units covered. Each group has about twenty-five minutes Study Guides to prepare one overhead transparency with the most important information from the section. At the end of class, each group                                            shares their overhead with the others.
236)     Stump the Teacher 1    Game where students make up questions based on a reading assignment. The teacher gets a point if he or she can answer                                               the question, and the students get a point if the teacher fails to answer the question.
237)     Stump the Teacher 2    Have each student find a spelling word for the teacher. They can choose any word from the dictionary, but they have to be able                                      to pronounce it, give the definition, part of speech, the origin of the word, and use it in a sentence. Teacher then attempts to                                           spell the word.  This strategy not only gives students practice in all the uses of a dictionary, but also they observe the teacher                                           model the steps in spelling a word: sounding it out, looking at the number of syllables, matching consonants and vowels to the                                        sound.  
238)     Summarizing and Note TakingUseful academic skill requiring students to distill information into a parsimonious, synthesized form.Must have classroom                                           practice            in summarizing to check student skill level. Use Marzano rules—Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to                                              understanding; Delete redundant material; Substitute superordinate terms for lists; and Select a topic sentence, or invent one if it                                      is missing. Also, can use The Narrative Frame in fiction summary. The Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame is another summary                                               technique used in expository material. T-T-I  pattern can have a number of questions Topic (T)—general statement about the topic                                               to be discussed; Restriction (R)--limits the information in some way; and Illustration (I)—exemplifies the topic or restriction. Two                                              more techniques are The Problem/Solution Frame and The Conversation Frame from Marzano’s Classroom Instruction That                                    Works. 
239)     SQ3R                           Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. A study strategy. Primarily used with selections from textbook or articles with headings.                                           It provides a systematic way to approach informational text prior to reading. An approach to studying and reading to improve                                comprehension and retention.
240)     Task Cards                   Specific instructions or guides for student use at learning centers. May be an assignment, or how to practice skills.
241)     Team Games TournamentDivide class into several groups and have groups sit in a circle. Each group is given an answer sheet in an envelope and an                                     envelope containing questions cut into strips. Movement and Turns rotate clockwise. Starting person draws a question out of the                                  envelope, reads it aloud, and gives an answer to the group. The person on his/her right person picks up the answer sheet after the                                              answer is given to check to see if answer is correct. If the person on the left of person with question challenges the answer,                                         he/she may give a different answer. Whoever is correct keeps the question as a sign they got it correct. If neither gets it correct, it                                          goes back into the envelope. Next person draws out another question, reads aloud, gives answer to group. Person on their left                                       checks, and the game goes on. At end of game or on signal, teacher sees who has most points (number of correct questions) or                                        just gives extra credit, etc. for correct answers.   
242)     Team Projects              Students work in teams to accomplish a task (either learning, or creating a physical product).
243)     Telephone                    One student is chosen to leave the room while the teacher teaches a short lesson to the rest of the class. The absent student                                          returns and is taught the lesson by the students. The student who was absent is given a (typically non-graded) quiz. Results of                                          the quiz are used for reteaching.
244)     Television                    Educational television programming is used in the classroom.
245)     Test A Friend               Have students formulate and write test questions on one side of their paper and put the answers on the back of the same paper.                                           On signal they exchange with someone and take their test, writing the answers on a clean sheet of paper and labeling with the                                          test maker’s name. Then they check their answers by looking on the back and marking the number they have correct. Then they                                        exchange with another student and take a new test and check. After they have exchanged three to five times, stop and collect                                            answer  sheets to see how they do. 
246)     Think Ink Pair Share    Like Think-Pair-Share but with writing component.
247)     Think-Aloud                 Teacher describes own thoughts while reading aloud to class to help readers better understand what they are reading by forcing                                     them to think about what they read as they read it. Think aloud strategies are not a sequence but a set of habits of mind common                                         to all effective readers which, if used well, can help readers make sense of a wide variety of texts in different media and of varying                                               complexity. They are predicting, describing, comparing making connections, monitoring and correcting, questioning, clarifying,                                             applying previous or new knowledge, identifying what is important, troubleshooting and problem solving, speculating,                                          philosophizing,  estimating, etc. Can also be used as an informal assessment of students’ thinking and comprehension.
248)     Think-Pair-Share          Teacher poses a problem. Students think individually, then pair (discuss with partner answers), then share ideas with class.
249)     Three-Stay One-Stray   Students are in groups and each group member has a number (1-4). After the problem solving discussions are complete and                                              all team members indicate that they can give the team's report, you designate the student from each team who will "stray." (Ex.                                         Say, “Numbers twos stray; everyone else stays”)That is, the one student from each group designated as #2 leaves it and                                                             rotates to another team to give the report. 
250)     Three-Two-One (3-2-1) Writing activity where students write: 3 key terms from what they have just learned, 2 ideas they would like to learn more                                                            about, and 1 concept or skill they think they have mastered.
251)     Three-Two-One Oral activity. Students give the same talk to three different students with decreasing time to do it. Students work in pairs.                                                        Student A talks to Student B and has a time limit of 3 min. B listens and does not interrupt. When the 3 minutes are up, teacher                                          says, "Change partners". Student A then moves to a new Student B. Teacher says "Begin" and Student A gives exactly the                                      same talk to the new partner but this time has only 2 minutes. When the 2 minutes are up, the teacher says "Stop. Change                                                 partners." With a new partner, Student A now has 1 minute to talk. During the three deliveries of the same account, theB                                              students do not talk and each listens to three different people. When the A students have given their talk three times, the B                                                students can now go through the same sequence, this time as speakers. Could also be 4-3-2
252)     Three Step Interview    A cooperative structure in which teammates interview one another on a particular topic. Consists of an interviewer, a                                                            responder, and a recorder. Roles rotate after each interview. In a team of three, partner A interviews B, while C records key                                          aspects of the response.  Roles rotate after each interview, allowing all members the opportunity to be interviewed. In a group                                             of 4 – A interview B while C interviews D.  Reverse roles so that B interviews A and D interviews C.  Reconvene group with                                              each person sharing partner’s response.
253)     Tic-Tac-Toe                  Divide class into teams. Write the numbers 1-9 on the board in a tic-tac-toe arrangement.  The students call out a number and                                            you have a list of words assigned to 1-9.  They must give the correct definition to take the space.
254)     Timed Drill
255)     Timed-Pair-Share         Pair activity with time limit.
256)     Timelines                     Students create a timeline writing and illustrating significant events with each section of the timeline. Take 2 unsharpened                                                           pencils and tape to each end of the paper. This allows students to roll up their timeline like a scroll and tie together with a piece                                      of yarn. Use freezer paper cut in long strips. Make a timeline of their own life, a story or book they’ve read, or for history.
257)     Toss a Question/          Form of review of what students have learned. They can form questions and responses from memory. Use a                    Catch an Answer                      soft ball (like a nerf ball) Explain that they will be practicing the questions and answers you have been studying. Begin by                                                 throwing the ball to one student and ask her/him a question. The student who catches the ball must give an appropriate                                                             answer. She/he then must ask another question and throw the ball to another student. The student who catches the ball must                                              give the appropriate answer and ask the next question, and so forth.
258)     T-Notes                        Provides students an organized method of note taking while listening or reading. Students divide a sheet of notebook paper in                                     half. While listening or reading, students record words or key points in the left column. In the right column, students record                                              definitions or explanations of key points.
259)     Transformation of Text Supply students with a text and ask them to transform it from its original genre to a different genre. For example, supply prose                                        and ask students to create a poem with the same essential ideas.
260)     Trash or Treasure         Put students into small groups. Collect a number of newspaper articles on a topic and give copies of the articles to each group                                                 of students. Ask a question and tell the students to sort the articles into two groups according to whether they are relevant to                                          the question (treasure) or not (trash). The students can then rank the articles from the most to the least useful, and justify their                                           rankings. Ask another question and let your students reconsider their selections, to show how the relevance of the information                                          depends on the question.
261)     Turn to Your Partner    Teacher gives directions to students. Students formulate individual response and then turn to a partner to share their answers.                                           Teacher calls on several random pairs to share their answers with the class.
262)     Tutoring                       One-on-one approach to teaching or re-teaching concepts. May be done by teachers, peers (other students) or professional                                           tutors.
263)     Twenty Questions        Students work in pairs, seated back to back. Student A is given an ordinary object familiar to both. Student B must try to find                                           out what the object is by asking up to 20 questions. After a successful identification or 20 questions, change roles and try another                                         object.  After students become adept at asking questions about familiar objects, they might want to try the same activity using                                      artifacts. Discuss how to formulate questions that generate broad information versus those that yield only a little data.
264)     Two Cents Worth          To encourage participation from all students, everyone has to give his or her 'two cents worth'.  Each student is given two                                                    pennies at the beginning of class and has to have a comment or question in order to turn in his/her pennies in by the end of the                                  discussion. It really works well, forcing the quiet ones to participate, and limiting the eager ones to contemplate their thoughts                                       before spending their pennies.
265)     Two-Column Notes       A note-taking guide where students list main ideas, headings, or vocabulary in the left column and explanations in the right                                                column. Ex. for cause and effect; listing causes in the left column and the effects in the right or list key vocabulary in the left                                         column and definitions in the right. Advantages: Using the folded sheet can be a great study aide; students can quiz                                                  themselves or each other with the answers hidden on the other side of the sheet.
266)     Two-Min.-Talks Group students into pairs. Inform students that they will each be talking about topic X for two minutes.  They will need to select                                         which student will begin first. Using a stop watch, tell students to begin talking. At two minutes, instruct students to switch.  At                                           this point, the other partner begins talking. It is okay for the second person to repeat some of the things the first person said.                                               However, they are encouraged to try and think of new information to share. Share responses with the entire class.
267)     Understanding Gauge Stop at any point during instruction and ask students to gauge their understanding of the concept using the fingers on one                                         hand. Five fingers indicates full understanding and one finger shows there is frustration or confusion. Quickly scan the room                                          and see if a full class re-teach is necessary or perhaps some individual or small group intervention would be more efficient.
268)     Videotapes                   Commercially produced tapes for educational purposes, or student made for assessment purposes.
269)     Videotaping                 Students produce videotapes then review their presentations. Useful in improving metacognitive and communication skills.
270)     Visual Aids                  Any graphical aids used in presentations or to clarify or improve writing.
271)     Visual Memory             Display picture for a second or two, then ask students to describe as much as they can remember from what they saw.
272)     Vocabulary Match List Give students list of words to match before they read the chapter or story.
273)     Vocabulary Review       After reading a story or studying a chapter, write key vocabulary words on 4x6 cards with a marker. Teacher holds a                                                       word card above a student's head making sure student does not see card, but rotating card so rest of class does. Without                                             saying the word, call on another student to give definition of the word. The first student tries to guess the word. Continue the                                      activity until all the vocabulary word cards have been answered correctly. Can also be used with numbers on the cards;                                                       students make up a math problem answered by the number on the card, which the first student must guess.
274)     Voting Cards                Students can be given laminated cards at the beginning of the year to be used to express their opinions in class. When they                                        agree with a statement, they might hold up a green card, disagreement could be signified with a red card, and                                                                yellow could be used to show indecision or uncertainty.
275)     VSS                             (Vocabulary Self collection Strategy) As a class, students nominate words they'd like to learn more about.
276)     Wallpaper Task            Students review information they have learned. Each student designs a piece of “wallpaper” that encapsulates key learnings.                                           Wallpaper is posted. Students take a gallery/”wisdom” walk and note what others have written/illustrated. Can jot down ideas.
277)     Walking Tour               Passages from reading are posted on individual pages around the room. Groups tour the room and discuss each passage,                                         then summarize.
278)     Want Ads                     Students write want ads. Varieties include "historical," "humorous," and as a famous character.
279)     Web                             Webbing in writing.
280)     Web Quest                   http://webquest.sdsu.edu/designpatterns/all.htm
281)     What Is It?                    The teacher brings an object to class that is unfamiliar or has some historical significance. Ask students to identify the object or                                               describe how it might have been used.
282)     What’s My Word           Students play in pairs, using pencil and paper. Player 1 chooses a spelling word and draws a short line for each letter. Player 2                                         tries first to guess and gets five guesses asking questions such as "Does it have an ion?" If the answer is yes, Player 1 fills in                                               the word part. "Does it have any n's?" and so on. Does it rhyme with? and so on. By using the process of elimination, they                                          should be able to get the right word by the fifth guess.  Then players 1 and 2 then switch roles. At the end of the game, players                                        add up their incorrect guesses. The player with fewer incorrect guesses wins.
283)     Where Am I?                Pair activity where partner1 points to a place on a blank map and partner2 selects the location from a list or names the                                                       location. Partner1 checks the response with a key. Partners switch roles halfway through the list. Alternative approach:                                                   partner1 describes location (no maps) and partner2 guesses where it is.
284)     Where Is It?                  To improve ability to describe place and location in writing. Number small paper objects (about 2 inches tall). This can be                                                      seasonal. You could use pumpkins, Christmas trees, even cartoon characters. Number from 1 to around 20. Each team will                                        need paper numbered from 1 to 20.  Make a chart and pre-teach a lesson on common prepositions (on, over, beside, above,                                            under, etc.) Hide your numbered objects around the room. Place some so they can be easily found, others in more difficult                                       places. Divide the students into             groups of 4. Two students are the searchers and two are the recorders. When you say "Go",                                      the two searchers begin looking for a numbered object. When they find one, they return to their group and whisper to the                                                          recorders exactly where they found it. The recorders write it on their paper in a complete sentence. This should all be done                                      quietly so other teams don't hear what they found. The   objects can be found in any order. When the time limit is up                                                    (15 minutes is good) have students share their answers. Give a point for each correct response. The team with the                                                          most points wins.
285)     Where Were You?        Writing activity. Students' interview their parents about certain historical events, taking notes about where they were and                                                   what they remember.  Add to this list: First man on moon, Kennedy assassinations, Ronald Reagan shot, Mount Saint Helens                                         erupting, Nixon resigning, Challenger accident, Bombing in Oklahoma City, John Lennon shot,Elvis Presley dies, 9-11 Point to                                       Remember: Go  over the journalism topics: who, what, when, where, why, how. Have students make their own list of events                                             from last year that they remember, to discuss with their parents.
286)     Whispering Game        Vocabulary strategy. Divide class into teams. Give the last person in each team a word. When teacher says "Go", the last                                                     student whispers the word to the one in front and so on until the first in line has the word and runs up to the board and writes it.                                         First team with correctly spelled word on board gets a point. At the end the students see the whole list on the board again.
287)     Who Am I?                   Students attempt to determine their secret identity (taped on their back) by circulating and asking "yes/no" questions of                                                           classmates.  They are allowed three questions of classmates or unlimited ones until they receive a "no" response. They then                                      find a new classmate to question. (use for characters in a story, people in history)
288)     Who’s Got the              On many 3x5 cards put problems and an answer on back, but they do not match. Start the students out by putting a question Answer               on the board. Someone has the answer on his/her 3x5 card. They walk up and put the answer on the board and also put up                                              the next question (the question on their card). Give them a new card and they sit down. The process continues and everyone                                   eventually gets up to the board.

289)     Word Associates          Requires students to identify which word or object is different from a series of others. Students then make a general statement                                           to link the other words or objects. It requires higher-level thinking skills and help students identify relationships between words                                    while recognizing categorizing factors. Examples:  In these groups, which one does not belong?  Explain why.                                                                       • FRANCE  GERMANY   GREECE  JAPAN                     • cm    m    in.   mm                                                                                                                      • 70, 25, 13, 1035,

260                                                             • condensation, precipitation, perspiration, percolation
290)     Word Bank                   List or collection of words for students to choose from.
291)     Word Chain                  Game that helps students categorize. Teacher supplies category and a first word, then students supply the next word "in the                                               chain." The chain is formed having the next word start with the ending letter of the previous word. For example: Category =                                       Things found in the kitchen. Words: SinK - KnifE - EggbeateR - RefrigeratoR - and so on.
292)     Word Walls                  Word walls are not only a great use of space, but an excellent learning tool. Word Walls are a systematically organized                                                      collection of words displayed in large letters on a wall providing students with a daily, easily accessible reminder of the importance                                          of developing their vocabulary. At the same time it gives the teacher a ready source for ongoing activities with student for                                                  extending and practicing their words.
293)     Wordsplash                A collection of key terms from a written passage which the students are about to read. The terms selected represent                                             important ideas that the teacher wants students to attend to when they actually do the reading later, but initially the                                          students' task is to make predictive statements about how each of the terms relates to the title of the reading. Display                                          selected terms randomly and at angles on a visual (overhead or chart). Students brainstorm and generate complete                                            statements (not just words or phrases) which predict the relationship between each term and the topic. Once students                                         have generated statements for each term they turn to the printed material, read to check the accuracy of their predictive                                              statements and revise where needed. "Splash" refers to the random arrangement of the key terms around the topic at the                                             start of the activity.                  
294)     Work Sheets              Most text books come with worksheets that can be copied. Also, there are numerous web sites which have printable                                         worksheets than can be downloaded for free.                                                                                                                                                             http://www.schoolexpress.com/

All subject areas, especially social studies and science related classes, can benefit from visiting the appropriate age website below. 

FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLS:    http://www.state.tn.us/education/ci/cistandards2001/la/cicontentreadmiddle.pdf




Ending your class is as important as beginning your class. Five minutes or less may seem like a short amount of time, however, over a period of several weeks, it becomes a significant chunk of wasted or lost learning opportunities. Most of the time, unused end minutes become a breeding ground for discipline problems. “Time on Task” means students are spending every minute of their time in class focused on the task of learning. It is up to the teacher to plan and adapt for using that time wisely. Here are some quick activities to help you manage those ending times successfully.

Ending & Exiting Your Class
1)       Application Cards        At the end of instruction, students write a real world application for the knowledge on a small card and submit it to teacher.
2)       CATs                            Classroom Assessment Techniques: Simple, in-class activities that give both you and your students instant, useful feedback                                               on the teaching-learning process. They can be in the form of oral responses, written responses, or signals. Everyone responds                                              at the same time.  Example of oral response: “Class, when I say Tell Me, I want everyone to say the name of this figure.                                                         Ready, Tell Me”  - Use thumbs up / thumbs down for True / False questions; Agree or Disagree Cards, etc.
3)       Cheat Notes                  Summarization technique. At the end of class or mini-lesson, students prepare a single note card of information they believe will                                           be on test. Students are allowed to bring these notes to test. As students gain confidence, withdraw use of cards during test.
4)       Checklist                      At the end of class, students can use a checklist to see if they have info for next lesson, completed necessary activities, etc.                                           Checklists can be used to satisfy many objectives. They can be useful as a memory tool or in encouraging creativity. They can also be used directly as assessments, or as a review tool in preparing for assessments.
5)       CROWN                        A closure technique that encourages students to reflect on the completed lesson. CROWN = Communicate what you learned.                                                 Reaction to what you learned. Offer one sentence that sums up what the whole lesson was about. Ways you could use                                                       what you learned. Note how well you did today.
6)       Debriefing                    A form of reflection immediately following an activity or at the end of class. Asking questions such as What worked well?”  “What                                             should have been done differently? and so on.
7)       Exit Slips                     Students must write the concept taught in class that day or explain three vocabulary words and how they are related, etc.  as a                                            “ticket” to leave class.               
8)       Get the Gist                  This activity forces students to squeeze meaning into a tight, precise summary. The goal of GIST is to have students convey             with 20 Words             the "gist" of what they have read or what they have learned by summarizing in 20 words. If reading, extraneous details must be                                             discarded as a clearly defined focus is found. It is best to require a sentence format. Students learn to ask themselves: What is                                                the most important person, place, or thing? What is the most important idea about the person, place or thing? If at the end of the                                        lesson,             students learn to ask themselves, “What skill or concept have I learned” or “What did I do in class today?”, etc.
9)       Grab Bag                      Near the conclusion of a lesson, have a student draw an object or word from a bag. The student must explain or illustrate how the                                                object is related to what they have learned.
10)   Learning Logs              Learning logs help students integrate content, process, and personal feelings and operate from the stance that students learn                                             from writing rather than writing what they have learned. Have students make entries in their logs during the last five minutes of                                       class or after each completed week of class. They differ from journals in that journals are usually free flowing whereas                                                      Learning Logs are more concise. The following questions could be used to guide students: What did I do in class today? What                                        did I learn? What did I find interesting? What questions do I have about what I learned? What was the point of today's lesson?                                                How does this connect to a previous lesson?
11)   Luck of the Draw          All students’ names are put into a container. At the end of class, a student's name is drawn at random from the container. At                                        the beginning of the next class the student whose name was drawn is required to present a 1-2 minute review of the previous                                      day's lesson.
12)   Meaningful Sentences Given vocabulary terms, students can be shown sentences in which the terms are used in a context that helps them to                                                         understand the meaning of the terms, or as an assessment, students can be asked to write meaningful sentences containing                                          key words as they leave.
13)   Minute Papers              An end-of-class reflection in which students write briefly to answer the questions: "What did you learn today? and "What                                                       questions do you still have?"
14)   Muddiest Point             A question used to stimulate metacognitive thinking. Students are asked to name or describe the concept they understand the                                                least from the lesson (their muddiest point).
15)   Newscast                      Use the last few minutes to show newscasts written and produced by students. Newscasts can either be about current                                                         happenings, or be used to explore historical events.  Ex. World War II Newscasts
16)   One Sentence Summary Students are asked to write a single summary sentence that answers the "who, what, where, when, why, how" questions                                            about the topic or today’s lesson.
17)   One Word Summary     Select (or invent) one word which best summarizes a topic. Have students write 2-3 sentences justifying the selection of the                                         summary word.                        
18)   Quickwrite                    Can use during the last few minutes of class. Cousin to Quicktalk except students have a short period (typically 30 seconds) to                                         share all they know by writing. Can then swap with partner or pass to the right, etc. for others to read.
19)   Pair Review                  Teacher (or students) generates 10 questions for A and 10 for B partners. Answer choices are listed for partner to choose from as                                           partner asks question from the list.
20)   Self-Assessments         Students reflect on their performance and assess themselves with teacher created instruments or student made.
21)   Sum It Up                     Have students imagine they are placing a classified ad where every word used costs them money. Tell them each word costs                                             10 cents, and they can spend "so much." For instance, if you say they have $2.00 to spend, then that means they have to write                                                a summary that has no more than 20 words. You can adjust the amount they have to spend, and therefore the length of the                                            summary, according to the text they are summarizing and the time you leave to finish.
22)   Summaries                  Condensing information into smaller chunks. The teacher controls the length by varying the method and by limiting the number of                                        words. Can be used at the end of class or lesson.
23)   The Last Word Summary technique. Each letter in topic name is used to remember key ideas in topic. (example: snow, Six-sided ice crystals.                                          Near center is dust particle. One snowflake is usually made of more than one crystal. Water vapor freezes to form.)
24)   Triangle Review           Draw a small triangle and have students answer, “What are the 3 points I want to remember”. Other shapes can be used—Circle                                              for “What are some questions still going around in your head?” or Square for “What are some things you saw, heard, or did that                                           “squared” with your beliefs?
25)   Ticket to Leave             Closing activity where students respond in writing or verbally to short assignment. List the steps of the scientific method, etc.