The Burgeoning Field of Instructional Design
Allows Teachers to Apply Pedagogical Skills
in High Corporate Settings


The burgeoning field of instructional design allows teachers to apply pedagogical skills in high corporate settings. The ADDIE model serves as the basis for literally dozens of Instructional Design models. The acronym stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Morrison, Ross, Kalman, & Kemp, 2011).  The ADDIE model itself  adds structure and organization to the training segment. This outline is primarily systematic and linear.  In its most productive replication it is recursive and self-informing as well.

Succinctly, during the Analysis phase the designer considers information about the learner, the content, the context, the organization, and the performance gap (Kruse, 2009).

The Design process gives the ID the opportunity to embellish and facilitate the lesson. At this juncture, he/ she creates text and media samples that will augment the interaction between the learner and the intended information (Morrison, et al, 2011).   In the process, the ID uses colorful and emboldened headings, varies font sizes, and inserts captivating graphics. Useful resources for media software include such sites as Create A Graph and Adobe Cloud (Create A Graph, 2013) (Adobe Cloud, 2013).

The Development stage witnesses the tangible creation of learning material. This material is the result of the combined efforts of the designer and the Subject Matter Expert. At this point media availability, as well as time and budgetary constraints, are considered (Perspectives on Instructional Design, n.d.).  Objectives are also formulated. These goals describe what the learner is expected to know and be able to demonstrate at the end of the activities (Cennamo, Ross, & Ertmer, 2009). Once presented in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor formulations, objectives identify the data and skills necessary to solve a performance problem (Morrison, et al, 2011). These beacons will be consulted and possibly adjusted by instructor and learner alike throughout the lesson.

Next, during Implementation, the activity is introduced to the target audience (Laureate Education, 2009).  At this point feedback is analyzed in the interest of increasing the learning curve of the students as well as tweaking the lesson. These formative evaluations occur throughout the process in a recursive manner and are instrumental in diagnostic retooling (Perspectives on Instructional Design, n.d.). Materials and time allowances are also tested during Implementation (Laureate Education, 2009). Given more latitude, the ID can use this information to quickly create a more effective prototype that can be tested once again for possible improvements or finalization (Morrison, et al, 2009).

Finally, in the Evaluation phase, results from informal observation of performance and products will be combined with a final assessment to determine whether the objectives of the lesson were met.  Importantly, obtaining results from a multitude of sources increases the assessments reliability and validity (Morrison, et al, 2009).

Although ADDIE offers many advantages with its structure and sequential components, some feel that it is too rigid and time consuming. As a result Rapid Prototyping was developed to alleviate some of the deficiencies caused by the excessive segmenting of tasks, as well as to speed up the entire process (Perspectives on Instructional Design (n.d.).  This design mimics all of the stages of ADDIE but its Design component features a more holistic approach.    Here, early in  that phase, a quickly assembled module is created.  It is then tested with a student audience and an analysis is made as to how learners responded, how effective the learning activities were, and how well the technology worked (Perspectives on Instructional Design (n.d.).

Based on feedback the design is revised and another prototype is quickly developed. More analysis follows. After sufficient iterations, a prototype is deemed “seaworthy” (Kruse, 2009). Since the designers now know what the program’s capabilities are, expeditious development, implementation and evaluation sections quickly follow (Perspectives on Instructional Design (n.d.). 


Instructional Design for Budgeting



Empowering today’s youth with basic financial knowledge to help shape their dreams and secure their future



Our Prime Interest is YOU!



Protoype Version

Instructional Plan





     The Team
     Project Description


   Needs Analysis
   Learner Analysis
   Performance Gap Analysis
   Contextual Analysis
   Task/ Topic Analysis


 Text Design
 Multimedia Design


 Delivery Methodology
 Comparison to Other Methods
 Instructional Materials
 Instructional Environment and Equipment
 Strategies Table


 Behavioral Objectives
 Student Grouping
 Time Allotment
 Sequential Procedures




        One-on-One Assessment Interviews
        Blog Entries
        On-line Course




The Team
  Financial Essentials is a small training firm composed of the following: Ailen, Jenni, Justin, Dennis, Cheryl and Karen. The team works together in the capacity of instructional roles to design educational material that is focused on today’s youth (ages 15-21).  The team strives to produce financial literacy material that is relatable to our target audience. Our goal is to ensure that these young people attain basic money wisdom that will guide them into their adult years.

Project Description
Historically, the citizens of countries around the world are challenged with debt crises and a lack of basic financial understanding. There are several articles that address the issue of financial illiteracy, especially in America.  In the April 9, 2012 issue of Time magazine the writer summarizes the problems we will face if we do not educate people at an early age  regarding this responsibility (Op-Ed: Improving Financial Literacy Is Essential to Our Nation’s Economic Health.  Read more at:
http://business.time.com/2012/04/09/op-ed-improving-financial-literacy-is-essential-to-our-nations-economic-health/#ixzz2OQKpNkIg) (Ferguson, 2012).
A large number of Americans consistently fail basic financial literacy tests.  Moreover, young Americans were found to be less financially capable than older Americans, while the undereducated are particularly vulnerable to unnecessary fees and debt.

Financial Essentials is a company formed to counteract these issues by providing basic Financial Literacy Tools for those of high school age through young adulthood.  Our purpose is to guide the learner into knowledge and basic tools of budgeting for financial success. The achievement goal for our learners is that they apply basic financial knowledge to accurately complete a sample budgeting outline that documents monthly income and expenses.


Needs Analysis
Our project addresses a topic that should enable the high school through adult learner to grasp essential financial terms and concepts and manage simple budgets. We will solve the inadequate knowledge of our youth and young adults regarding financial literacy.  The article mentioned earlier suggests that financial instruction be added to the core curriculum in our schools along with math and reading. One method of effective instructional intervention will be our presentation on this subject.  Modeling this responsibility and instruction from parents and mentors will also help with the solution, and perhaps our presentation will be a catalyst that inspires and empowers their tutelage.

Learner Analysis
The general characteristics for learners in “Financial Essentials” are late high school age students to young adult learners of all ethnicities. The learners will range from 15 to 21 years of age. They will have varying levels of educational experience.  Their backgrounds will include current high school student, student with a high school diploma, college level students, college graduates, and adults in the workforce who lack college degrees.
Specific entry characteristics for “Financial Essentials” will require the learners to have basic math skills that include the ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide. Additionally they will need to utilize a calculator and understand basic terminology that includes definitions such as assets, budget, expense, fixed expenses, gross income, interest, gross income, net income, savings, unexpected expenses, and variable expenses. They must also understand that the goals of a budget can be short, medium or long-term.

Performance Gap Analysis
Our target audience is typically made up of youths, age 15 – 21, who are generally untutored in the realm of financial literacy. At the end of the lesson they should be able to accomplish, among other things, the following overarching criteria.
The students will:

Contextual Analysis
The considerations of completing the financial essentials module will be to improve understanding of basic financial terms and concepts as well as household budgeting.  The aim is to equip students with the tools make conscious quality financial decisions. As such, the module is also a quick reference to resources that provide more insight about the topic financial literacy. This will allow students to further explore the life-impacting topic of Financial Literacy.
           Three contexts used in this module:

Task and Topic Analysis
Topic: Basic Financial Literacy Concepts and Budgeting for High School Youths and Young Adults.

               2.  Budget


Text Design
Enhancements will be achieved by using headings as signals, utilizing definitions and examples, alternating font size and color, employing transition words and phrases,  exploiting numbers and bullets to delineate lists and inserting eye-catching graphics.

Sample Text Designs
Target Audience: Age’s 15-21 – teenagers transitioning from high school to college graduation
Task Areas: Budgeting
Budget Design Resources:


Income is the amount of money you earn from working a full or part-time job or for providing a service, such as cutting grass, babysitting, or tutoring, etc. Income can be seen as an addition or increase coming in on a weekly, bi-weekly or monthly basis. You can also count allowances and cash gifts as part of your income.
Do you already earn income?  When you get your paycheck, do you ever wonder about all of the different words shown on your paystub? Did anybody bother to explain what all of those pesky words mean?

Paycheck Breakdown
Gross Pay is the amount of income you make before any kind of deductions are subtracted.
Net Pay is the amount of income you make after deductions and taxes.
Deductions may be items such as Federal taxes, state taxes, FICA, medical insurance and any other special items as explained by your employer.

Paycheck Taxes
Federal Tax – Everyone has this tax come out of his or her paycheck.  It is paid to the Internal Revenue Service, which is a government agency.
State Tax – Everyone pays taxes to the state government in the state they live.
FICA – stands for Federal Insurance Contributions Act. It is a law requiring everyone to help contribute to the county’s social security and Medicare program so that there is some form of benefit for someone who is retired, disabled persons, or children on deceased workers.

Example of Pay Stub

 Anywhere Employer, Any State, NA, 11111

Date: 00-00-0000

Pay to the order of Financially Wise Student
11 Anywhere Lane, Any State, NA 11111

Pay Period – Week 00/00/0000 – 1 week
Net Pay - $285.00

Hours 40.00
Pay Rate - $10.00 per hour

Federal               $70.00
FICA/Medicare  $30.00
State                   $15.00

Gross Pay - $400.00

Total Deductions - $115.00

Budget Know How


A budget is a personal spending plan you create to help you to know how much income you have coming in and how much you having going out! In the end you will know if you are in the red (negative) or in the black (positive). The number one lesson to remember is that budgeting does not have to be hard.  It is all about the tracking!
First – Starting tracking income and everything you spend in a week.  Start keeping all receipts. Categorize receipts by the date. Circle the date and the total amount spent on each receipt. This will make it easier for you track dates and amounts.
Second – Breakdown expenses on a weekly tracking form by category.  Categories can vary by individual personal budgets. For example:

Week 1





















Transportation (Public, taxi, carpool)







Car (gas, car payments, maintenance, insurance)







Entertainment (movies, CD’s)







Meals Out







Cell Phone




























Bumps in the Road (Unexpected events)














You should track your expenses for about four weeks to be able to create a monthly budget.

ThirdMove all four weeks of tracking to a monthly summary budget sheet.  For example:

Monthly Spending Summary

(Stock Free Images, 2013)
Month ______________________________

Monthly Net Income – Example - $285 x 4 weekly checks
$1, 140


Example - $200



Example - $250


Transportation (Public, taxi, carpool)

Example - $0

Cash Gifts

Car (gas, car payments, maintenance, insurance)

Example - $350


Entertainment (movies, CDs,)

Example - $100

Total Income

Meals out

Example - $100


Cell Phone

Example - $50



Example - $75



Example - $20





Bumps in the Road (Unexpected Events)





Fourth – Depending upon your expenses outlined in your Monthly Budget Summary, you may be in the Red (negative) or in the Black (Positive). 
You will want to evaluate your Needs versus Wants to see how you may adjust your spending and monthly expenses.

Needs are defined as those things you need to sustain or improve your daily survival.
Wants are defined as those things not essential to your survival, but you would love to have if you can.




Designer clothes


Video games


Big screen TV

Heat, Water, Electric


Health Insurance



(Stock Free Images, 2013)
Multimedia Design
The design process plays an important role in constructing an instructional lesson. It affects motivation, as well as enhances or subtracts from the effective interaction between the learner and the material. Technology is a provident provider of design features. These delineations not only elevate the visual appearance but also help the instructors to communicate effectively.
Charts and graphs represent important information in clear, concise fashion.  The following site is a free source for graphs, pie charts, etc.
Create A Graph (http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/) (Create A Graph, 2013).
Pictures and illustrations are effective in furthering the goals of instruction. These images help the learners better understand information contained in the text. Frequenting the following site will prove advantageous.
Stock Free Images
(http://www.stockfreeimages.com/?gclid=CNqsmJ22n7YCFdOHMgodeDMAmw) has over 800, 000 free images and illustrations from which to choose (Stock Free Images, 2013).

(Stock Free Images, 2013)

             Clip Art images are abundant throughout the Internet and are usually free of charge. The process of copying or downloading these images is user friendly as well.
Finally, Adobe Cloud offers the users a panoply of sophisticated photo shop tools that will embellish all forms of textual presentations (Adobe Cloud, 2013). Subscriptions and additional information are offered at http://success.adobe-education.com/en/na/cloud.html


Delivery Methodology

In reviewing the target audience of ages 15-21, the group has decided to focus our financial literacy module on the budgeting process and to create a video addressing the performance gap.  As the face-to-face lesson progresses we will also address such relevant concerns as the breakdown of income and taxes, creating a personal budget to track expenses, meeting short-term, medium-term and long-term goals, and saving money. In addition, we will encourage active learning by eliciting information from our learners when completing a whole group activity with a graphic organizer.  Moreover, we will initiate small group dynamics as the class applies their learning in a real-world context.  Finally, we will encourage the learners to utilize available technology to calculate budgets using e- forms, blog reactions to the lesson, and afterwards participate in a short, on-line course to reinforce and expand their understanding of related concepts. The whole group presentation of the video on a smart board, as well as auxiliary exercises, will allow the target audience to:

Complete the instructions with appropriate peer and facilitator support that will help them create their own learning conditions.

Learn personal responsibility and behavior as a result of the understanding the materials, as well as taking part in the ancillary small group format that encourages individual achievement.

Receive consistent instruction and clarification as a result of content-specific focus questions (Morrison, et al, 2011).

    Some  areas that will need to be considered in developing the video is to present concrete text and examples, exercise control of the step size, use appropriate pacing, maintain consistency, use cues (especially monitoring focus questions and responses), and follow the pre-instructional strategy for objectives, transitions, and cognitive load. The two types of cognitive loads are intrinsic and extraneous.  “…Intrinsic load is determined by the interactivity of the elements of the content. One approach to managing high intrinsic load is to break the ideas into smaller components rather than using a whole or molar view” (Morrison, et al., 2011, p. 213).  Extraneous has to do with the design layout of the material. 

  Reviewing the learner analysis findings is very important for this target audience.  “Development can be very simplistic, and in fact sometimes less is more.  Sometimes, the simpler that you create it, the more effective it is, because they’re not sidetracked with the bells and whistles” (Laureate Education, 2009). Therefore, three things will need to be considered:

Simplicity of the material

Learner’s understanding of technical terms

Background of the target audience

On the other hand, the choice of the video may present limitations such as the lack of interaction between the instructor and the learner, the occurrence of monotonous learning, and longer preparation time and expense. The development team will need to be conscious of ways to make sure the video is based in active learning techniques to engage the learner and to achieve the learning objectives set forth (Morrison, et al., 2011). In response to this concern, we will a utilize user-friendly language in describing terms and concepts, and encourage active participation by having the students, in a whole-class activity, complete a graphic organizer replete with financial terms, This activity, immediately preceding the showing of the video, will inform the instructor of the amount of support needed as the students view the video.

In addition we will be vigilant in anticipating the limitations of group presentations.  These include learner passivity, inconsistent pacing by the instructor and lack of open feedback.

Comparison of Other Methods

The small-group format will also work for segments of the financial module. Small groups are conducted face-to-face and encourages more interaction, peer teaching, open feedback, active learning, and collaboration. When creating a personal budget, the students will work together practicing social skills such as cooperation, collaboration, as well as negotiating a consensus.  The limitations presented are: prior preparation to preserve time, lost instructor control, instructor’s comfort with peer learning, and facility expenses. 

Cognizant of these rises and fallings, the team has chosen an eclectic delivery method of group presentation, lecture, interactive learning, video viewing, and a small group protocols to apply what they have learned.  Later, questionnaires and blogging will be dealt with in a self-paced manner. Importantly, throughout the active portion of the exercise and the enriching supplementary activities (questionnaires, blogging, and relevant links), students will have access to individual laptops

Finally, if the team had chosen the delivery method of distance education, the instruction would be online or virtual. The student would not have to commute, a more diverse audience can be reached, a variety of multimedia tools can be used, and students are not limited to a set schedule of working. Some limitations are equipment quality, inconsistent interaction and learner pacing, and a higher drop-out rate. Also with this design, a learning management system or platform would be needed and this could be expensive.

 Instructional Materials

Materials and Media Selection:

Video, Smart Board, Internet, Lap tops, printers, glossary, focus questions, monthly budget outline, sample documents, and links to correlating resources.

The development of the group presentation and the materials used will have the end result of delivering a package of effective training.  This training will help learners master the objectives from the analysis aspect (Piskurich, 2005).

There are several instructional materials that will enhance the delivery of the presentation.  Our group decided to utilize the strengths of the development members as well as meet the needs of our target audience by creating a video presentation with some interactive aspects to help with understanding and retention.  We will also provide concrete tools to enable the learner to apply the knowledge following the training.  The tools will include sample documents as well as links to other resources they might use.

This video is a whole-class presentation.  It has been observed that in our target age group of later high school through college age the developmental abilities, learned practice, and processing methods vary widely.  The video format, combined with facilitator and peer scaffolding, will help the learners advance at their own level, and also help them develop the confidence to be more self-reliant as well as practice personal responsibility (Morrison, et al, 2011).

Our hope is that after experiencing the presentation on basic financial tools, the learner will have a better understanding of the subject as well as develop the ability to use the tools for greater responsibility and efficiency  not only in executing a budget plan, but in their lives as well.


The Video Storyboard (Prototype Development)


Video Storyboard



  • A plan for managing your income and expenses.


  • Financial literacy is a very important life skill that is critical to shaping a young adult’s future. However, all age and socio-economic groups have problems with budgeting and the overuse of credit.
  • It is important to have a financial plan for managing your income and expenses in order to become financially empowered.


  • As students learn about budgeting basics he or she will also apply this knowledge in a testing activity that uses terms and ideas related to budgeting.
  • Students will see how different life situations can impact their financial state. Students choose situation: Single, or Single parent; no degree or degree (AA/BA)-and income factors such as living alone or with a roommate.





Essential Expenses

  • Get organized by keeping all receipts.


  • Organizing these by types of expenses


  • There are three types of expenses: fixed, variable, and unexpected.





  • Essential expenses- expenses which are vital in meeting our needs for food, shelter, clothing, core utilities, and health insurance, etc.
  • Fixed expenses tend to be for rent, mortgage, car payments and insurance. These expenses stay the same for each month.


  • Variable expenses tend to be for food, entertainment, and clothing. These expenses change each month.
  • Unexpected expenses happen at inopportune times and are difficult to predict or measure.



Identify wants vs. needs

  • Wants are nonessential items we can live without.


  • Needs are essential items without which we cannot live.


Income (Wages) (FICA)

Income is the money that people receive for work done or time spent. This could be formal such as wages for work or pocket money for chores around the house.


  • Review gross and net income.


  • Define different types of deductions.
  • Identity sources of incomes.


  • Calculate net income to use for budget.


With Degree:

Gross income:  $1600 / month

Net (take home) income: $1200.
Medical insurance included.

Without Degree: 

Gross income $1440 /month ($9. per hour).

Net income: (take home) $1224.
Option to Add insurance for monthly premium of $275.

  • Set Goals by understanding your current financial picture and future educational goals.


  • Identify student loan debt and how it will impact your future.

Credit vs. Debit

Debit-  a  sum of money or spent, or taken from a bank account

Credit- money available for a client to borrow.

  • Students will choose one of the following options. First, obtain a credit card with poor terms, or choose a debit card with custom features from the bank where they have their accounts.


  • A credit card is used to make a purchase by borrowing money
  • A debit card is used to make a purchase with one's own money from his/ her bank  account


  • Good approach to building credit: opening savings or checking account, getting a small loan, or credit card.
  • Pay bills on time, pay more than minimum on credit bills, avoid impulse buys, and contact creditors if you can’t pay.


Do not ignore your obligations!

Consequences of not budgeting

Debt, stress, feeling overwhelmed, struggling with bad credit or financial hardship.


“It will cost you twice as much but you will only be able to afford half as much.”





Budget Surplus

Surplus can be spent on nonessential expenses.
These include shopping, entertainment, or even adding to your savings.

If student has surplus by next paycheck they are a “Budget Boss Hog.”

If not they will be a “Penny Pinchin’ Piggy.”


Instructional Environment and Equipment

                  The types of learning environments in which this unit (age range 15-21) could be delivered are the online e-learning format or face to face classroom facilitator settings. Although it can be implemented in either of these settings, the thrust of this particular lesson will take place in the classroom milieu.  In order for it to succeed we will try to anticipate an assortment of eventualities. For the implementation process we will use methodologies that range from lecture, to active learning.  We will also use approaches that include visual, auditory, and verbal sensory approaches.  We will incorporate independent, collaborative and whole class settings as well to insure that optimum learning takes place. We adapt those methodologies depending on the requirements of a particular group of individuals (Perspectives on Instructional Design, n.d.).  For example, there may be students that have special, unexpected needs.  These individuals apparently flew under the radar in the analysis phase. Other students may have skills and backgrounds that enrich the class (Perspectives on Instructional Design, n.d.).    These especial abilities can be serendipitously integrated as the lesson progresses.
Additionally, the Financial Essentials module will be user- friendly for any person participating in it. The key is logistics. Attending to lesson preparation, communication and outreach, student travel, and technology, as well as to the idiosyncratic nature of our eclectic flock are a few of the successful ingredients in this “smorgasbord of learning“(Perspectives on Instructional Design, n.d.). 
For the Financial Essentials classroom format, technology and broadband are critical in making the financial literacy module function properly.  Computers with Internet access and up-to-date browsers are useful for locating resources, printing handouts and outlines and discovering how to complete activities. They also serve as a global classroom in which our students can create and diffuse blog entries concerning their learning.  Video projectors and smart boards are useful for group presentations. Accordingly, the facilitator must ensure that all technology is available and functional to
Strategies Table
Example                           Strategy                           Implementation


Anticipatory Exercise

Lecture, with visual adjuncts, encourage responses.

Facts, principles, concepts

Graphic designer will be used to elicit prior knowledge

Facilitator-guided, interactive, whole class dialogue.

Facts, principles, concepts


Visual canvas will be made interactive as facilitator frequently stops video to ask questions, as well as elicits responses and questions from students.

Interpersonal skills

Small Group format to encourage peer support.

Students will complete budget outline and expense tracking in small group settings.  This will lead to cooperative support and consensus negotiation among classmates.

Application of skills

Students will apply knowledge in a relevant context that gives them ownership of the product.

Students will use newly acquired knowledge to complete individual budget outlines.


Model of pay stub will be available

Students will scrutinize and identify real world pay roll deductions.


Preparing Participants

Behavioral Objectives:

At the conclusion of the lesson the students will complete the following do-able, measurable, and needed behaviors:

View a short video on budgeting.

Utilizing the budgetary tools, complete a tracking system and budgetary outline for expenditures involving housing, transportation, cost of groceries, consumer goods, insurance, utilities, and unexpected expenses.

Following the lesson:

 Student Grouping

These will consist of whole class, small group, and independent.

Time Allotment:  60 minutes.

Anticipatory Hook (2 1/2  minutes)
Graphic Organizer Activity (6 minutes)
Follow-up discussion (2 minutes)
Video (8 minutes)
Follow-up discussion (2minutes)
Budget tracking and Outline (35 minutes)
Closure dialogue (3 minutes)


Sequential Procedures

1. Anticipatory Hook

Begin by asking the audience how many have eaten fast food in the past 48 hours. Inform them that this year Americans will spend over $110 billion on fast food. That’s more than they’ll spend on movies, books, magazines, newspapers, videos, and recorded music combined. This averages out to nearly $2, 000 per person. Since we will be talking about budgeting, here are some fast food entrees that should definitely be avoided.

Soft Shell Crab Tacos           
Location: Los Angeles’ Westside 
Price: $28.50

Hot Dog

Location: Serendipity 3, New York City

Price: $69.

The "Haute Dog," a foot-long frank grilled in white truffle butter and covered in black truffles and foie gras.

Macaroni and Cheese
Location: Santa Monica, Calif.
Price: $95

Served in a white truffle.

Philly Cheese steak
Location: Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphia
Price: $100

Kobe beef, Taleggio cheese and poached lobster

Location: The Westin New York at Times Square, New York City
Price: $1,000 

White truffle cream cheese, goji berry jelly, and gold leaves (edible).

Location: U.K.
Price: $4,200

 Dubbed the “Pizza Royale 007,” its toppings included cognac-marinated lobster, champagne-soaked caviar, venison, and edible flakes of 24-carat gold (CNBC, 2013).

2. View Video

3. The teacher will facilitate the  instruction by introducing topic, linking the familiar to the unfamiliar, paraphrasing difficult terms and concepts,  moderating a whole-class discussion, answering questions, clearing up misconceptions, forming small groupings, giving and receiving feedback, and assessing learning.

4. The students will practice the concepts by participating in interactive budget games.

5. The students will apply their knowledge in a real world setting by formulating a monthly budget

In addition to the above, we will present a glossary that includes: budget, assets, gross income, net income, paycheck deductions, paycheck taxes, FICA, Fixed expenses, variable expenses, unexpected expenses, short, medium, and long-term goals as they relate to budgeting.

Focus questions to be posed by the instructor throughout the lesson at appropriate intervals.

1. What is the difference between gross income and net income?

2. Tell me the difference between savings and debt, and how they are both created.

3. What is a budget? Why is budgeting important?

4. What are some of the taxes removed from the sample payment record? 

 5. Name three sources of income. Which one is most important?

6. What are three advantages of a successful budget?

7. Explain the distinction between needs and wants.

The instructor offers the introductory hook to lead into a discussion on budgeting.  Using a graphic organizer and a chart he/ she ask the students for words associated with budgeting.  These are listed on the chart.  The instructor will also ask the students what is meant by these terms. In this manner the teacher will create a dialogue that links the familiar to the unfamiliar.  At the same time misconceptions will be addressed and clarified.

Incidentally, throughout the class students will be incrementally introduced to material beginning with simple definitions and then moving on to analyzing, problem solving, application and evaluation. Eclectic protocols include: lecture, chart work, visual dynamics, whole-class dialogues, video presentations, small group work, technologically grounded enrichments, and applying what they have learned in a real-world, technologically enhanced context.  Each successful stage will prepare the learner to master the next as the lesson builds upon itself.  Cues to missteps will be rendered by informal peer assessment, as well as the facilitator’s correctives.

Following the completion of the graphic organizer, a video on financial essentials and budgeting will be shown.  The instructor will frequently stop the video to ask questions, paraphrase explanations, and help the students understand embedded financial terms. Focus questions will also be posed at these times as well as throughout the activity. After viewing the video, the instructor will return to the chart and ask the students to list additional financial words and terms.

Subsequently, the class will be divided into groups of four or five. Each student will have access to an I pad. Students with similar financial situations will work at the same location.  Model samples of an expense tracking framework as well as a monthly budget outline will be available. Templates of e-formatted outlines will be on hand for on-line completion. In addition, a glossary of essential words and terms will be provided to each member.  The graphic organizer chart can also be accessed as a resource as well.   Every effort will be made to address language differences as well.  An adult bilingual aide will help monitor the activity as each student calculates his/ her monthly earnings and expenditures and records these on the e- formatted budgetary outline. Calculators may be used during this activity.  Students may collaborate by supporting each other on questions concerning the material, the outline, and the overall format.  However, each must complete an individualized budgetary outline. These will be printed at the conclusion of the lesson. Afterwards closure will include a group discussion on the results of the activity.  Students will also be afforded the opportunity to blog, in self-paced fashion, their reactions to the lesson. 


The ADDIE process has been the guiding beacon in implementing this presentation.  Analysis was the initial focus, then Design, Development, Implementation, and finally, Evaluation. Importantly,  evaluation instruments can be developed as the objectives are defined (Morrison, et al, 2011).

One type of formative evaluation is, according to William Trochim, the needs assessment, which determines who warrants the program, how great the necessity is, and what might work to meet these requirements (Trochim, 2006).  This step was begun in the Analysis phase of the presentation, and will continue to be modified if necessary.

An important part of formative evaluation is to submit the plan in its nascent stage for peer review.  This will enable the group to assess strengths and weaknesses of the instructional design. 
An integral tool for any instruction is an evaluation survey or questionnaire.  This would be given to the students in either a paper form, or an online survey template. 

As the overall goal for the presentation is that the learner is able to complete a sample budgeting tool that documents monthly income and expenses, an important evaluative tool will include the ability to review completion of the goal for each learner.  This summative evaluation might includeartifacts such as a post-instructional test, or, in our case, a copy of a completed document that would illustrate  learner knowledge of the subject.

As part of the evaluation to determine what the students know and how they demonstrated what they have learned, the teacher will assess (in a formative manner) the students’ participation, especially their responses to focus questions, as well as any self-initiated inquiries. This will be done with informal observations.  The instructor will also peruse the finished budgetary outline as part of a summative evaluation. The benchmarks from a lesson-specific rubric that is aligned with each of the objectives will be compared with the finished product (and performances) and an appropriate grade will be rendered. This collection of data from multiple sources will serve to verify, or negate the assumption that the goals and the objectives have been met.


Supplementary Enrichment

Later, the instructor will meet face-to-face with each student to offer feedback on the results of the assessment. In addition, a questionnaire will be handed out after the lesson to be completed by the students in a self-paced modality. Here they will rate the lesson in terms of instructor preparedness and delivery, content, materials, time allotment, lesson likability, lesson difficulty, and relevancy.  The survey will also seek to monitor the students’ new attitudes towards financial responsibility. The results of this questionnaire will prepare the groundwork for a confirmation evaluation sometime in the future (Morrison, et al, 2011). This preparation will not only include the above mentioned feedback but will also address the practical issue of continued funding for these types of instructional modules.

An additional link concerning finances will be provided to students to complement the material covered by our lesson. At this site, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has developed an on-line, self-paced course concerning basic personal financial management. Interested students will be provided with passwords and user names. The site can be accessed at:




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Ferguson, Roger. (2012). “Improving Financial Literacy Is Essential to
Our Nation’s Economic Health”.  Time. Volume 179. Issue
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Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Instructional Design: A New
             Paradigm. Retrieved from http://mym.cdn.laureate-
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Trochim, W.M.K. (2006) Introduction to evaluation. Retrieved from Research Methods
             Knowledge Basehttp://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.htm



The Final Version


Implementation and Evaluation Report

Project Description

My purpose in creating this lesson was to guide learners as they used authentic tools to prepare a personalized monthly budget. An ancillary goal was that, in doing so, they would increase their knowledge of personal finances.
The general demographics of the target audience ranged from high school age students to young adult learners who have achieved varying degrees of education. 
Materials included a Power Point presentation, a projector and Smart Board (for a budget demonstration), calculators, computers, a glossary of pertinent terms (on chart paper as well as foolscap), Monopoly money, blank check and IOU artifacts, a pay stub model, an on-line spreadsheet template, as well as questionnaire to be completed and mailed back as an after-class activity. (Please visit the appendices section at the end of this artifact).
Eclectic lesson protocols included: lecture, visual dynamics (with active participation of the audience), whole-class dialogues, and independent work as they applied what they have learned in an authentic technological context.  Supplementary materials included a short on-line lesson to complement the lesson under consideration.


Behavioral Objectives:

At the conclusion of the lesson the students will have completed the following behaviors:

Viewed and offered appropriate comments during a short Power Point presentation on budgeting.

Utilized the budgetary spreadsheet to categorize spending and accurately completed a monthly tracking system for income as well as expenses.

Following the lesson:

Accessed enrichment links to supplement the knowledge building.

Student Grouping

These will consist of whole class, as well as independent work.

Anticipated Timeframe :  80 minutes.


            A Power Point presentation was viewed and discussed for the purpose of introducing the lesson, connecting prior learning to new experiences and engaging the students  (Stock Free Images, 2013). Students were made aware that questions and comments during the presentation were invited and welcomed.

            The teacher facilitated the instruction by introducing topic, linking the familiar to the unfamiliar, paraphrasing difficult terms and concepts, moderating a whole-class discussion, answering questions, clearing up misconceptions, giving and receiving feedback, as well as assessing the learning on a formative basis (Laureate Education, 2012).

In the interest of introducing the vocabulary, I extemporaneously used financial terms and phrases to explain sound financial thinking. The students, in turn, were asked to define and explain words, terms and concepts which were relevant to the lesson. They were also requested to provide examples. For reinforcement I used a chart as a proxy word wall where the students could view the words for additional reinforcement. All this provided them with a multi-sensory experience as they observed, listened, and communicated.

Focus questions were posed during the Power Point demonstration as well as offered throughout the lesson. Responses formed the basis for the formative assessment. These queries included, but were not limited to:

What is the difference between gross income and net income?

Tell me the difference between savings and debt, and how they are both created.

What is a budget? Why is budgeting important?

Name two sources of income.

What are two advantages of successful budgeting?

Explain the difference between needs and wants. Can you give an example of each?

                  The Power Point presentation went well. It was helped by the active participation of all five students who ranged in age from sixteen to twenty.  Each was eager to share anecdotal episodes of his/ her earning and spending activities.  They all had a good grasp of the terminology and the twenty minute time frame seemed adequate. 
The instructor then demonstrated the completing of a monthly budget.  I used a smart board and projector to transmit and complete my own personal budget in real time using the downloaded Vertex 42 Personal Budget spreadsheet template. The students seemed at home with the Excel software. As the demonstration progressed they were astounded by items and categories of expenses that they had overlooked. We managed to finish the segment in twenty minutes but I wished that we had more time to discuss their “aha” moments further.  And with a larger student population this portion of the lesson needs to be allotted additional time.
After viewing this “think aloud” demonstration, the students then applied their knowledge in a real world setting by formulating their own monthly budget.
Kinesthetic adjuncts included using Monopoly money to represent their monthly earnings.  Here, certain amounts were dispersed incrementally to expense targets as they formulated their budgets. At the conclusion of the exercise students filled out either an IOU if they exceeded their budget or a fill out a blank check for their savings account if they lived within or below their means. Cues to missteps or misconceptions were offered by informal peer assessment, as well as the facilitator’s correctives.
Templates of e-formatted budget spreadsheets were available for on-line completion. These are found at the following URL: http://www.vertex42.com/ExcelTemplates/personal-budget-spreadsheet.html.
After entering this address and hitting “enter”,   scroll down and click on   “Personal Budget.” Then click “Download” (Vertex 42, 2013).
The teacher monitored the independent activity as each student calculated his/ her monthly earnings and expenditures and recorded these on the e- formatted budgetary outline. Calculators were used during this activity. This portion of the lesson went smoothly.  All students had brought the requested pay information and it was clear that they had given thought to their expenditures.  The newly gleaned knowledge about expenses that they had accrued during the smart board demonstration was quickly put to good use as they filled out the template. These spreadsheets were then printed at the conclusion of the lesson. For those unfamiliar with the Excel format, paper spreadsheets were available as an option. (None chose the paper and pencil alternative). Incidentally, this was also done to provide a failsafe in case of technological glitches.  
The half hour time allowance for the budget completion seemed adequate. Afterwards, closure included a group discussion on the results of the activity.
During the Evaluation stage, the instructor gauges the learning that occurred with each student as well as the overall effectiveness of the course.  To accomplish this he/ she collects and analyzes information gathered from a number of sources. In this instance, these sources included a monthly budget prepared by the students. Here they applied their financial knowledge and skills in an authentic setting.  Data was also gathered from an informal observation of the students’ class participation, as well as analyzing their remarks in the debriefing or closure discussion.  Finally the results of a course- and instructor-critiquing questionnaire was gathered and evaluated.  The goal of all this was to attain insights about the efficacy of the lesson with an eye towards possible future revisions.
The overall goal for the lesson was to enable the learner to complete an accurate budgeting template that documented monthly income and expenses. Hence, an important evaluative approach included the ability to review completion of the spreadsheet for each learner.  This summative evaluation illustrated learner knowledge of the subject matter, and the spreadsheet format, as well as the accuracy of their math.   A rubric aligned with the objectives was used for assessment purposes.  This tool more clearly established the criteria used in grading and, as such, resulted in a fair and accurate appraisal.
A tape recording of the Power Point presentation segment was available to later identify active participants for the formative assessment. However, because of the small number of students, I was able to determine individual contributions without any supplementary aural tools.
Following the lesson, I quickly perused the completed budgets and informed the students that all had turned in an accurate report.  Their overall eager class participation also contributed to their exemplary grades.
Upon exiting they were presented with a questionnaire to be voluntarily completed by the students in a self-paced modality. Here they were to rate the lesson, from one to five, five being best) in terms of instructor preparedness and delivery, content, materials, time allotment, lesson likability, lesson difficulty, and relevancy. The survey also sought to monitor the students’ new attitudes towards financial responsibility. The results of this questionnaire will help prepare the groundwork for a confirmation evaluation sometime in the future (Morrison, et al, 2011).
An additional link concerning finances was provided to students to complement the material covered by our lesson. At this site, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation has developed an on-line, self-paced lesson concerning basic personal financial management. The students were offered passwords to use if they chose to access the site anytime after the class ended. 
Here are the results of the two surveys that I received.
Survey A
Teacher Preparedness 5
Teacher Delivery 5
Content 5
Lesson Likeability 5
Lesson Difficulty 5
Relevancy 5
Materials 5
Time Allotment 3 (too short)
Supplementary Enrichment 1 (no time)
Survey B
Teacher Preparedness 4
Teacher Delivery 5
Content 5
Lesson Likeability 5
Lesson Difficulty 4
Relevancy 5
Materials 5
Time Allotment 2 (too short)
Supplementary Enrichment 1 (no time)
Average of Both Surveys                                           
Teacher Preparedness 4.5
Teacher Delivery 5
Content 5
Lesson Likeability 5
Lesson Difficulty 4.5
Relevancy 5
Materials 5
Time Allotment 2.5 (too short)
Supplementary Enrichment 1 (no time)

Data Graph

(Create A Graph, 2013).

Proposed Revisions and Key Points:

In conclusion, although this particular lesson has been developed at little cost (in a monetary sense) the key to its confirmation and possible expansion will be the participants’ positive reactions and constructive suggestions. Finally, the transfer of financial budgeting know-how is a valuable life skill. Educators, seeing this as a tangible return on investment, should have a vested interest in furthering opportunities for youths to increase their acumen in this area.

Appendix A

Pay Stub

Appendix B


Directions: After reading each of the following statements, circle the response that most closely reflects your viewpoint.

Part One

The goals of the training were clearly defined
Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The topics covered were relevant to the course
Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The coursework was clear and understandable.
Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The course content was presented in a structured way.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The course improved my knowledge of the subject.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The materials and visual aids were helpful and user-friendly.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The duration of the lesson was just right.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The instructor seemed well prepared.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The facilitator involved participants.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
I found the handling of my questions and comments to be professional and enlightening.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
I had enough time to embed my new skills in the creation of the budget.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
The training experience will be useful in my life.
Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
I participated in the on-line supplementary FDIC lesson.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
Overall I was satisfied with this course.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree
I would recommend this course to others.

Strongly Agree             Agree                  Neutral                  Disagree           Strongly Disagree

If you rated any of the sections above as "Disagree" or "Strongly Disagree" please explain

your choice so that I can improve the quality of the lesson.

Part Two

Can you offer any other opinions or suggestions for improvement?
No blog selections, no positive feedback on participating in complementary on-
Thank you for the time you took to provide me with this information.

Appendix C

Glossary (Word Wall)

Assets - something valuable that a person owns such as money, a home, a car, jewelry, etc.
Budget - an estimate of income and expenses over a specified period of time.
Fixed expenses - a periodic cost that remains more or less unchanged throughout the month. Examples: rent, loan repayments, and cable.
Variable expense - costs that are not fixed but range in value from month to month. Examples: food, cell phones, clothing, and entertainment.
Periodic Expenses - costs that do not occur every month. Examples: insurance, vacations, license renewals, and subscription renewals.
Emergency expenses - unexpected expenses. Examples: medical, repair or replacement of personal items (especially autos).
Net wages - the amount that remains after the government and/ or company takes their share in taxes and benefits. It is the actual amount (take home) of your paycheck.
Gross wages - the amount you have earned before any deductions (taxes, health insurance or Social Security is taken out). It amounts to hours x salary. You never see this full amount in your take home pay.
Interest - a fee paid for the use of another party's money. To the borrower it is the cost of renting money, to the lender the income from lending it.

Appendix D

Vertex 42 Budget Template

Appendix E








Contributions to Power Point Discussion

Worth 20% of Grade

Routinely provides informative ideas and correct responses.

Provides useful ideas and often offers correct responses.

Rarely provides useful ideas or responses when participating in discussion.

Failed to provide useful ideas or comments when participating in discussion.

Quality of Information Offered During Power Point

Worth 10% of Grade

Demonstrates clear understanding of all budget -related topics addressed in the Power Point and Smart Board presentations.

Demonstrates clear understanding of most budget- related topics addressed in the Power Point and the Smart Board presentations.

Demonstrates clear understanding of some budget- related topics addressed in the Power Point and Smart Board presentations.

Failed to Demonstrate clear understanding of most of the budget-related topics addressed in the Power Point and Smart Board presentations.

Budgetary Knowledge and Math Calculations.

Worth 70% of Grade

The student demonstrates proficiency in budget wherewithal by working completely independently while finishing an accurate budget.

The student demonstrates competence in budget wherewithal while needing a few prompts to finish an accurate budget.

The student frequently needs support to identify and locate appropriate information but finishes the budget. There are a few errors in the calculations.

The student shows little understanding of the concept of budgeting and/ or fails to complete the budget, or does so with numerous math errors.







Appendix F


I ____________________________________________do truthfully disclose that because my expenses exceeded my earnings for the past month I owe my creditors the amount of $___________.
Appendix G

Blank Checks

(Free Stuff 4 Kids, 2013).


Appendix H




Power Point Presentation


Introduce the Lesson


Click Link

Empowerment Through Basic Money Mastery




Create a Graph. (2013). Retrieved on June 19, 2103 from:
FDIC.  (2012). Computer-based Instruction. Retrieved on April 19, 2013 from the site:
Free Stuff 4 Kids. (2013). Retrieved from the Internet on June 3, 2013 from the site: 
Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2012) [Motion picture]. Advanced Instructional Design
Interactive Media.”  Baltimore: Herring, M. 
Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Kalman, H. K., & Kemp, J. E. (2011). Designing effective instruction (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stock Free Images. (2013). Retrieved on March 25, 2013 from the site:
Vertex 42. (2013). Retrieved from the Internet on June 7, 2013 from 




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