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Smart in Any Setting

 

 

 

Internet Literacy IV

 

Webpage Literacy

 

Web-Page Information Gathering Strategies

 

Introduction

 

Reading a web page requires different-type skills than those associated with traditional literacy.  When you're reading a book, you might start at the top of the page and read every word until you get to the bottom.  But with a webpage, this usually isn't the best way to read.
Because web pages have a lot of information you don't need, your job is to find the relevant information without getting distracted by all of the other information.  To do these students must navigate through a non linear environment that is rife with glitzy ads, hyperlinks, menus and interactive graphics
Every web page is different, but there are some common elements you'll find on most pages.  For example, the page might have the main content in the middle of the page, with ads on the left or right side.
Resultantly, the module, “Webpage Information Gathering Strategies” has been designed to address the requirements of this new type of literacy. This includes developing competencies in scanning, skimming, perusing (careful reading), note taking, and summarizing This two week-long segment of “Internet Literacy” will also ensure that  students are proficient in navigational skills involving hyperlinks, navigation menus, internal site searches, scrolling techniques, and internal search engines.

Module 4
Web-Page Information Gathering Strategies
Timeframe: two weeks
Objectives
At the conclusion of the “Web-Page Information Gathering Strategies” module students will be able to:
Objectives

Expanded Overview
To effectively gather information from web sites students need to develop competencies in scanning, skimming, perusing (careful reading), note taking, and summarizing.  In addition, they must be proficient in using the navigation bar as well as in recognizing relevant hyperlinks. This two week-long module will introduce students to many web-page capabilities as well as unveiling necessary navigational and information gathering skills.
Skimming gives the student a general idea of the information contained on the site. This includes reading the title of the web site as well as the title, subheadings, pictures and captions on the page (Mack and Ojalvo, 2014). 
If the material proves promising they should then begin an active exploration of the site scrutinizing the internal search engine, hyperlinks, navigational menus, and dynamic images that change as a viewer holds the mouse over them. All this will help students develop the important skill of creating forward inferences.  This refers to the ability to anticipate where to go next in a non-linear environment. Mastering these concepts will help learners develop approaches to determine whether or not to continue further investigation of the site and, if they choose to proceed, how best to efficiently collect important information.
During the module, students will explore and inspect websites’ navigational tools and other interactive capabilities as both individuals and as members of collaborative groups. A short lesson by the instructor at this stage will allow for the nurturing of the guided discovery process.
Introductory Lesson
The teacher, using a video presentation, presents a sample website. He/ she thinks aloud and points out the various components on which an active reader should focus. These areas may include navigational elements as well as the special features of online text, such as the use of embedded hyperlinks, menu options, mouse-over features, internal search engines, site maps, and even the use of media such as video, image, and audio.
Website Literacy Slideshow Activity
After viewing the following slide show, students will explore a website of their choosing, reflect on its various features, and post their discoveries in a discussion forum. In this discussion post students will share what they have learned about two different webpage assets and explain the advantages of each feature.  Later, they will read and respond to two other posts.


Power Point1
Employing the Basic Navigation Tools of a Web Site.
When you're reading a book, you might start at the top of the page and read every word until you get to the bottom. But with a webpage, this usually isn't the best way to read.
Since webpages have a lot of irrelevant information, your job is to find the relevant information without getting distracted by all of the other stuff.
Every webpage is different, but all contain some common elements. For example, the page will probably have the main content in the middle of the page, with ads on the left or right side.
Almost every webpage will have some sort of navigation bar that lets you go to other parts of the website. These can be located across the top of the screen in horizontal fashion or on the left side of the page in a vertical formation.
The page may also include links that take you to different page or to a different website. By learning about some of these basic parts, you'll be able to find the information you're looking for more quickly.
Often a Web page holds more information than can fit on one screen. A Web page appears aligned to the upper left hand corner of your screen. There is often information that you cannot see farther down after the last line on the screen.     Sometimes there is also more information to the right of the screen.
Here are some convenient ways to move around that particular page. 
Slider & Arrows
Scrolling is an easy way to navigate on a Web page. You can scroll up and down and side to side by using either the horizontal or vertical onscreen scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the screen.
To scroll using the onscreen scroll bars, simply position your cursor on the slider on the scroll bar. Hold the mouse button down and drag the slider up and/or down on the vertical scroll bar (or side to side on the horizontal scroll bar).
You can also position your cursor over the arrows at the top and the bottom of the vertical scroll bar (left and right sides of the horizontal scroll bar) to move one line at a time. 
Using Arrow Keys
The keyboard holds some other choices for helping you move around a Web page.
The first are the Page Up and Page Down keys on your keyboard. Pressing these keys while on a Web page will move you up and/or down the screen one page at a time.
The Arrow keys on the keyboard are convenient tools for moving the focus of your computer screen up, down, left, or right. These keys will move the screen more slowly, moving one line at a time
Navigation Menus
A navigation bar (or navigation system) is a section of a website or online page intended to aid visitors in travelling through the online document.  Simply click on a topic or sub topic that interests you.
There are easy ways to move from web site to web site as well. The beauty of the Internet is that everything is linked to one and other. Recognizing links or hyperlinks enables you to move from one site to another.
A link or hyperlink can be text, or a picture or icon. Links move the user from one Web page or Web site to another. A hyperlink has an unseen Web address imbedded in it. 
Text links are easily recognizable by because they are underlined and of a different color.  If you position the mouse pointer over the link it will turn into a hand. If you click on a link it will move you to another page or site.
If the new page or site proves to be irrelevant just click the back button of your browser and you will return to where you were.
You can also click on a picture or icon the same way. These are called graphic links. You can recognize a graphic link the same way you detect a text link. Place your mouse pointer over it. If it turns into a hand it is a graphic link.
Hyperlinks are a great way to easily find out more about a particular word or concept. There seems to be no end to the information on this Information Highway.
On some sites there are embedded internal search engines. You simply type in a term or phrase in the field provided and you'll get a list of results of relevant pages on the site. Finally, you can bookmark a website or hyperlinked site for future reference.  Just click the yellow star on the right side of the address field.

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Power Point 2 Activities
Students will view the following Power Point. The class will be divided into four groups and each group will be assigned a category. These categories are: skimming, scanning, note taking, and summarizing.
Each group will be responsible for composing a list of five facts about their assigned category.  Later, a whole class discussion will follow and the information will be posted on a chart for future reference. 

Power Point 2
Once the student has decided the site looks reliable and is pertinent to his/ her needs, what does one do next?
Gather Information!
To gather information from a web site in an effective manner students need to develop competencies in scanning, skimming, perusing (careful reading), note taking, and summarizing.  In addition, they must be proficient in using the navigation bar as well as recognizing relevant hyperlinks. 
Step 1
When you reach your site, quickly scan the landscape

Make predictions about where each of the links may lead.

An important embedded skill is “forward inference” – anticipating where to go next in a non-linear environment.

Explore interactive features of dynamic images (animated images, or images that change as a viewer holds the mouse over them), pop-up menus, and scroll bars that may reveal additional levels of information contained within the site.

Step 2
Once you have determined that the site is indeed relevant and accurate you are ready to begin gathering information.
Start by asking yourself what you wish to learn.
You may utilize your primary research question or those developed in the “W” column (what I want to learn) of a KWL chart.
Step 3
Skim first. You skim to get a general idea of the page or passage. It gives readers the advantage of being able to predicate the purpose of the passage, as well as the main topic.
Reading the title and view the pictures.
Read the captions under the pictures.
Step 4
Scan next. The purpose of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text.
When scanning you do not read every word. You are trying to locate specific key words or phrases.Rapidly read the first and last paragraphs on the story or the introduction and summary.
Look for the main idea of each section.
When you find words you don’t understand write them down and look them up.
Step 5
When you locate valuable text decrease your reading speed and read more carefully.  This is material you may wish to retain when you begin to take notes.Read the informational text, separating the important points from information that may not be critical to the summary.
Step 6
Note Taking
Don’t copy every word.
Filter the information.
Concentrate on key ideas. Some students may develop useful shorthand or codes.
Take accurate notes.  Use your own words but don’t change the meaning of the text. If you quote directly from the author, use quotation marks and cite the source.
Jot down facts you remember.
Turn notes into an organized list.
List the sources and page references.
Note Taking Template

Inquiry Question
Source (URL)
Title
Author
Date
Next, jot down bulleted facts and details.

 

Don’t strive for perfection because the notes are only a quick draft of the most important points.
Reorganizeyour notes by returning to the text and checking to see if the information in the notes is accurate.

Step 7

Summarizing

Write the first draft of the summary from the notes, not from the text.
Review the summary using both notes and draft to check content.
Revise and Edit
Proofread for mechanics, spelling and grammar.
Summarizing Template
Read the article.

 Fill out the 5Ws and H.

Who:

What:

Where:

When:

Why:

How:

Write a 40-word Summary

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Scanning Activity

 

Discussion Board Activity Two
Students will scan an assigned excerpt, looking at the different sizes and styles of print.  They should then submit a post revealing what they noticed and what they believe is the purpose for large fonts, and underlined or italicized words.  Prompts will encourage them to deduce that the type size of boldface or italicized headings is usually an indication of the importance of the excerpt or indicates a movement from the general idea to specific or key ideas. Additionally, they should infer that as the information becomes more specific, the type size decreases.
Discussion Board Activity Two
Students will read the same online article.  They will then post a “think aloud” concerning their use of skimming strategies. These might include reading the title, subheadings, and sidebars, viewing the pictures, and reading their captions.  Each student will then respond to at least three other classmates’ posts with critiques, additions, or questions.
Later, students will reflect on their learning by posting an artifact on their blog.  Their reflections will address this question:
“Why is it helpful to skim an article?”

 

Sidebar for Students
The student, having oriented himself/ herself with the interactive features of a site is now ready to glean information from the site’s assets.
The learners should begin this task by scanning the page. The purpose of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text. When scanning they should pay attention to words in boldface, large font sizes and italics and glance over the sub headings to determine if the material meets their needs. Additionally they should read the first and last paragraphs as well as the topic sentence in each paragraph. .
Finally, when the student locates valuable text, they will decrease their reading speed and read more carefully. This is material they may wish to retain when they begin to take notes. 
Skimming and Scanning Wiki Activity
Students will work in teams of four.
Remind students that the purpose of skimming is to get a general idea of the material at hand and the goal of scanning is to extract certain specific information without reading through the whole text.
During this activity they are trying to locate certain key words or phrases that will tell them to explore that section more carefully.
The students will next be presented with an online newspaper article.  They will be asked to read the first and last paragraphs only. When they are finished, they should predict, (reaching a group consensus) the main ideas of the piece. Next, students read the first sentences of each paragraph. If they want to change their prediction, they should type the new prognostication below the first one (Mack and Ojalvo, 2014). 
Students should then glance over the article for words in larger fonts, bold face, and italics. They should examine the photographs, visual charts and other interactive features. Again, they may change their prediction based on the new information or keep their original prediction. Finally, students should read the entire article and consider the main idea (Mack and Ojalvo, 2014).  .
Later each student will submit a blog post and address these questions:
“Was their prediction correct?” “At what stage of the process did they reach the correct conclusion?” “How much did it have to change from their initial statements?”  “Why do they think that is?”
All skimming and scanning activities will be assessed using a rubric that will quantify the students’ proficiencies in the stated objectives. As such the assessments will be aligned to the lesson objectives.

Skimming and Scanning
Evaluation Rubric

Objectives

4

3

2

1

 

Distinguishes main ideas and the relevancy of text through the skimming of section headings, boldface terms, photographs, captions, diagrams, and side bars. 

 

 

Skims text to identify the main ideas.
Skims text in order to note headings, boldface terms, photographs, captions, diagrams, and side bars.

 

Skims text to identify many of the main ideas.
Skims text in order to note many of the following: headings, boldface terms, photographs, captions, diagrams, and side bar.

 

Skims text to identify few of the main ideas.
Skims text in order to note a few of the following: headings, boldface terms, photographs, captions, diagrams, and side bars.

 

Unable to skim text to identify the main ideas.
Notes very few of the following: headings, boldface terms, photographs, captions, diagrams, and side bars.

Uses scanning strategies to discover essential information linked to key words and phrases.

Scans texts for all specific, essential information.

Scans texts for most of the specific, essential information.

Scans texts for some of the specific, essential information.

Unable to scan texts for specific information.

Practices collaborative work skills.

 Initiates numerous ideas and supports the efforts of the other team members.

Initiates some ideas and supports the efforts of the other team members.

Initiates few ideas and generally supports the efforts of the other team members.

Rarely initiates ideas or supports the efforts of the other team members.

 

 

 

Note taking Introduction and Activities
The next step in online informational gathering is note taking.
Note taking involves the transfer of key details from the text to what will eventually be an organized list. Students filter information, eschewing long sentences while concentrating on key ideas. They use shorthand and may even draw pictures during the process. Although the bulleted points are in their own words, they are careful not to change the meaning of the text. As they proceed they answer the questions who, what, when, where, why, and how. In addition they do not strive for perfection as they jot down facts since they will subsequently review, edit, and reorganize the notes. Finally, when they quote directly from the author, quotation marks are used and the source is cited. Eventually all sources will be listed on a reference page.
Activities
Students will review step 6 “Note taking” in the slideshow.   Afterwards, they will scrutinize an individualized article.  They will read the first two sentences, focusing on specific ideas. These ideas will be listed in their notes. They will repeat this cycle until they have completed the article. Later, students will post these notes on their blog.  Other students will be assigned to reconstruct the paragraph using these bulleted details.  Finally each pair will conference to see how closely the students were able to reconstruct the original piece.
Discussion Forum
Students will next be presented with a list of expository sentences in the form of a paragraph.  They will deconstruct these, categorizing the words as either informational or connectors.  They will then use the informational words to express explicit details that should be included in their notes. They will post their results on the discussion board and later respond to other students’ posts (Mack and Ojalvo, 2014).
Note Taking
Evaluation Rubric
Objective 4    3                            2     1


Applies note taking approaches to organize important information in words or short phrases.

4

Wrote notes including succinct key facts which directly answered all of the research questions and were written in the student's own words.

3

Wrote notes which included most key facts. Most  notes were
written in the student's own words.

2

Wrote notes which included some irrelevant facts. many notes were copied directly from the original source.

1

Wrote notes which included a majority of facts which did not answer the research questions. Most or all notes were copied word-for-word from the original source

 

Summarizing Introduction and Activity
The final step in online information gathering is to write a summary of the collected data. Summarizing means extracting details and ideas from your notes and then expressing that information in organized sentences in your own words (Thompson and Lewis, 2012). The first draft of the summary is written from the notes, not from the text.
The last step is to revise and edit the summary, proofreading it for punctuation, spelling, and grammatical miscues.
Teacher Notes
In this vein they must initially glean the main ideas as well as important details from the text.  To accomplish this they will be required to utilize such related skills as skimming, scanning, and note taking. Since this is a problem solving activity a performance assessment is called for. The problem at hand is to discover relationships among the presented material, identify main ideas and important details, and then fashion this information into a logically constructed, mechanically sound, succinct essay (Oosterhof, et al, 2008).  Another advantage here is that the test measures the problem solving skills it is supposed to measure.  In this instance the student is aware that the goal is to create a summary but must search for a number of unknown variables to reach that goal (Oosterhof, et al, 2008). A rubric will be created to help the essay assessor eschew subjectivity and instead rely on an unbiased rating system (JISC infoNet, n.d.). Finally, this test could well serve as a summative evaluation in that it covers all the critical content of the lesson(s), and provides an authentic setting for the students to showcase their knowledge and skills. Challenges for the instructor include the application of technical skills to formulate the online test as well as developing a rubric that clearly describes proficiencies in skimming, scanning, note taking, as well as in summarizing the main ideas.
Learning Goal
The students will write a comprehensive summary after reading an informational article found on a Web page.
Summary Description of Performance
Students will read a short web page article and utilize prerequisite  skimming, scanning and note taking abilities to comprehend what they have read and, accordingly, express the  main ideas and important  details in a mechanically sound summary.  They will use the prerequisite skills of skimming, scanning, and note taking to accumulate important ideas and details which will create the basis for the summarization. They will also utilize their prerequisite knowledge of essay structure, as well as correct punctuation, grammar and spelling to write the finished product.
The directions to the students are:

 Summary Description of Performance Assessment

The students will perform the following actions.

Focus:  product
Scoring Plan: Rubric

    Rubric
Summary
Elements       4                       3                        2                      1


Purpose

The overall purpose
of the summary is
clear.

  •  

The overall purpose is generally
clear.

  •  

The overall purpose is somewhat ambiguous.

  •  

The overall purpose is unclear.

  •  
  •  

Writing Style

The writing style is customized to the audience.
The writing is economical, clear, and concise throughout.

  •  

The writing is generally customized
to the audience.
The writing is, often economical, clear, and concise.

  •  

Some
of the writing is  customized
to the audience.
The writing is sometimes economical, clear, and concise.

  •  

Most of the writing
is not customized to the
audience.
The writing is rarely economical, clear, or concise.

  •  
  •  

Structure

The summary begins
with a clear topic sentence
that reveals the
main idea of the Web page article. All other
critical ideas and important details are stated in a logical progression
All main ideas are supported by relevant details.
There is no extraneous information
A concluding
sentence effectively
brings the summary to
an end.

  •  

The summary begins
with a topic sentence
that reveals the main
idea of the Web page article.
All other critical
ideas and important details are stated and
arranged in a generally
logical progression.
Most main idea(s) are supported by relevant details.
Some extraneous details
may be
included.
A concluding
sentence brings
the summary to an end.

  •  

The summary may or
may not reveal the main
idea of the Web page article or may do so later in the piece.
The summary  states some, but not
all, critical ideas. Some may not be in 
logical
progression.. Main idea(s) are supported by some relevant details
The summary  includes extraneous details and/ or 
lacks a conclusion.

  •  

The summary does not
state the main idea of
the Web page article.
It
reveals few critical ideas and details
and does not use a logical
progression.
Some details or ideas are extraneous.
A conclusion
Is lacking.

  •  
  •  

Mechanics

There are  no
mistakes in punctuation, grammar, and
spelling

There are some mistakes
in punctuation,
grammar, or spelling

There
are many mistakes
in punctuation
grammar, or spelling

Many mistakes in punctuation, grammar,
or spelling make
the piece difficult to comprehend

  •  

       Comments_______________________________________________________________
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Summarizing
Evaluative Rubric

Objective                     4                            3                       2                              1


Summarizes the main ideas and critical details by writing a mechanically correct, original, accurate, organized, and succinct synopsis

Presented content clearly and succinctly with a logical progression of ideas and supporting evidence.
First sentence contains main idea. Writes a concluding sentence that gives reader a sense of completion. 
Answers at least 5 of the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How questions. There are very few spelling, grammar, or punctuation errors.

Presented most of the content with a logical progression of ideas and supporting evidence.
First sentence contains most of the main idea.
Writes an adequate concluding sentence.
Answers at least 4 of the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How questions.
There are a few spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.

Presented content which was at times unfocused, demonstrated littleorganization lacked effective supporting evidence.
Includes an important idea rather than the main idea in the first sentence.
Writes a weak concluding sentence.
Answers at least 3 of the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How questions
There are many spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors.

Presented content which was random, poorly organized and lacked supporting evidence.
Main idea was not identified or
concluding sentence was missing.
Answers one or two of the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How questions

Spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors made summary difficult to read.

                                          Assessments
Matching Column
Grade Weight: This part of the quiz is worth 11 percent of your final grade.
Directions: type, in the space provided in Column A, the letter of the definition found in column B that best describes each numbered word.
Column A                                                          Column B

bars at the right and bottom of the computer screen.

website to another .

 

general idea about the Web page.

 

 

Answer Key

Explanatory Feedback

10. Scrolling is an easy way to navigate on a Web page. You can scroll up and down and side to side by using either the horizontal or vertical onscreen scroll bars on the bottom and right side of the screen (TechTerms, 2014).
11. Internal Search Engines can be used to find content on the website that you have located. The procedure is to enter a keyword or phrase in a field and then cli

Assessment (Essay)
Teacher Notes
Procedural Category
At the conclusion of the Web page Literacy lesson students will be able to:

To assess this procedural knowledge I have chosen to use an essay format. Essays tend to measure more directly behaviors specified by the objectives and allow teacher to gain additional insight into the student’s thinking. This assessment will be delivered in a synchronous manner. Forty-five minutes will be allotted for its completion. The essay will be graded manually.    I have devised a scoring plan which will be delivered to the students at the start of the lesson. It will contain criteria for awarding points based on proficiency and completeness levels. It will include stipulations for partial credit as well. This comprehensive plan is written in concise terms and at an applicable reading level. Further, the plan specifies specific attributes to be evaluated with point values awarded for each characteristic. This will allow different assessors to objectively reach similar conclusions.
In preparation for their essay students will explore websites and concentrate on its various interactive features. These components may include hyperlinks, menu options, navigation bars, etc. Subsequently they will take notes on important details such as how each navigation tool is used. 
Essay Assessment
Directions
For assessment purposes, learners will describe, in essay format, three navigational tools they have located on a website, explain the procedures connected with their use, as well as the information gained as a result of each tool’s activation. 
Scoring Plan
Grade Weight: the essay is worth 9 percent of your final grade.
3 points   1. Information clearly relates to the identification of three applicable navigation tools. (One point awarded for each tool).
3 points   2.  Three applicable navigation tools are described in terms of their use.
3 points    3. Each of three navigational tools is specifically described in terms of the obtained results.
The following model essay will be presented to the students immediately following the test. This will give them the opportunity to compare and contrast their written product with the model.
Feedback (A)
Model Essay for Full Credit
I began researching my essay on applying navigational tools by visiting the website www.snowleopard.org. (Snow Leopard Trust, 2014). After skimming and scanning the material I decided to explore three navigational tools. The first tool I used was the navigation bar. It presented four options. I chose “Learn.” I clicked “Learn.” I was presented with a variety of information about Snow Leopards that used photos and titles to indicate hyperlinks. The next tool I chose was hyperlinks. Picking up where I left off in the second paragraph I clicked on “Cat Facts” and learned about the Snow Leopard’s physical features, behavior, life cycles, habitats, and much more. The last tool I activated was the Internal Search Engine. I typed “Himalaya” since I knew that the Himalayan Mountains were an important habitat for the Snow Leopard. The engine sent me to a page that listed a number of hyperlinks to other sites. Each of these addressed issues related to Snow Leopard in the Himalayas.
In conclusion I have found that using navigational tools is an easy and productive way to move around a website or to access other websites. This allows us to gather good information and makes research easier and more profitable as well.
Feedback (B)
Here are a number of reasons for earning less than full credit.
I listed less than three navigational tools.
I did not explain how to use all three.
I did not describe specific results after using each of three navigational tools.

 

Formative Assessment
Directions:
Go to the Purdue OWL: Email Etiquette page.

 
Go to the Angelfish Species Profile page.

                                                       
In conclusion, Internet Literacy describes a process in which online students utilize search engines and web sites to find answers to their academic questions. Hence it is evident that technology and this new type of literacy be inexorably linked.However cutting-edge the novel approaches may be, traditional pedagogical imperatives remain. These include the creation of clear, concise, measureable objectives that are linked to appropriate content.  In addition, the teaching methods and choice of media must dovetail with both the objectives and the content. In a correlating manner, all of these characteristics must be informed by state-initiated learning standards. Finally, the lesson must include assessment criteria that directly correlate with the objectives while describing, in objective terms, what the student knows and can do at the completion of the lesson.